where [pi]/2 is introduced as a scale factor to relate the free-fall height to the actual arc length that an object traverses in a gravitational field; [V.sub.[tau]] is the relative transverse velocity
and d is the distance between the Sun and the Earth.
These models incorporated the current distance, relative radial velocity, and orientations of the two galaxies, as well as a low transverse velocity
of 20 km per second in the direction of galactic rotation.
Specifically, the transverse-velocity sinusoid has a wavelength about twice that of the forward velocity and the peaks and troughs of the transverse velocity
plot occur near the peaks in forward velocity.
At greater distances from the nozzle the transverse velocity
As has already been noted, there are a number of cases in which an apparent superliminal transverse velocity
results.(2) There is some disagreement over the exact number of apparent superluminal velocities that have been discovered because the detailed calculation includes two constants--the Hubble constant and the deceleration parameter--whose values are uncertain.
Between the long chain branched LDPE and the linear LLDPE under identical EFC conditions, the former was found to neck to a lesser extent, had higher axial velocity, lower transverse velocity
and lower film temperature relative to the latter.
The streamwise velocity [U'.sub.j] and transverse velocity
[U'.sub.2] fluctuations are computed by decomposing the instantaneous velocities into their mean and fluctuating parts,
To extract more information in the calculation, we define the rapidity in x-direction [y.sub.1] = (1/2) ln[(E + [p.sub.x])/(E - [p.sub.x])], the rapidity in y-direction [y.sub.2] = (1/2) ln[(E + [p.sub.y])/(E - [p.sub.y])], the transverse rapidity [y.sub.T] = (1/2) ln[(E + [p.sub.T])/(E - [p.sub.T])], the transverse velocity
[[beta].sub.T] = [p.sub.T]/E, and the transverse coordinate [r.sub.T] = [t.sub.0][[beta].sub.T].
5 are represented transverse velocity
field at 0.5, 1 and 3 [D.sub.e] for all the analyzed viscous models.
Figure 3 presents FVM numerical vector plot predictions of the transverse velocity
components indicating corner vortex patterns seen in both experimental and simulations found in literature using the Giesekus model (20).