Not only were the early 1980s and late 2000s recessions the most severe with respect to unemployment (BLS 2012)--10.8% in December 1982 and 9.5% in June 2009--the growth rate of pre-tax and transfer income
instability was the largest as well--ranging from 9% (2007-2009) to 15% (2007-2012) during the Great Recession and 8% from 1981 to 1983.
As lower oil prices would transfer income
to oil consumers from oil producers, UBS revised upward the current account balance projections for India, Thailand, Philippines and Singapore.
In effect then, the policy permits her to swap OF + GE of income--fruits of her own labor--for OF units of "labor-free" transfer income
and E'G' additional units of leisure.
It is clear from above discussion that for households having land between in 12.5 to 25 acres, the self employment is the sole contributor in no-farm income inequality in Cotton/Wheat Sindh as compared to Barani Punjab where all sources except transfer income
contributes in non-farm income inequality.
"The denial of an ongoing source of transfer income
has helped to polarise football finances further," the League says in a written submission to the inquiry.
The spending review paves the way for child benefit to be removed from families with a higher-rate taxpayer, triggering speculation that business owners could transfer income
to their spouses to avoid higher tax brackets.
The cyclicality of income for the bottom quintile falls from 0.76 to 0.41 as a result of transfer income
alone, and that of the second quintile falls from 0.90 to 0.61.
In the working paper by University of British Columbia economists Giovanni Gallipoli and Laura Turner, researchers examined data from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and found that in marriages, "main-earners" (typically husbands) tend to transfer income
and compensate "second-earners" (typically wives).
If government tax and transfer policies were motivated solely by the desire to transfer income
from the rich to the poor, there is little doubt that this could be accomplished.
Governments operate a variety of programs that tend to transfer income
from the rich to the poor.
If market, cultural, or economic differences could explain the divergence in poverty trends, then these rates must also diverge based on pre-tax and transfer income