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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
The questionnaire also asked for information on the gender of the trainees (Table-1).
Despite previous failures to hit targets, this year the desired number of trainee secondary school teachers was raised - to its highest recorded level of 18,726.
Our new trainee programme is the first step in the journey to help tackle Scotland's shortage in care workers and give these trainees the chance of becoming confident, skilled child and youth care workers.
Facebook comments branded the scheme "selfish" and "ridiculous", as well as accusing Barfection of profiting from free labour of trainees.
Supervisors should require trainees to maintain the following items for each assignment:
A supervisor can have two trainees providing they are at a different stage in their training--for example, one trainee is in Stage 1 of their work based assessments and the other has undertaken their third quarterly work-based assessment.
Kayleigh Taylor joined the company in 2012 after a week's work experience at the firm and is one of the new trainees preparing to start the two-year traineeship programme this month.
Two thirds of junior doctors said their job was getting them down, while 69% of trainees said the work-life balance of medical registrars was poor.
Direct observations of a trainee while they perform different clinical tasks and regular counseling regarding the deficiencies and their rectification on regular basis give the trainees a solid platform for improving their overall clinical day to day performance12.
Examples of CPD work for consultants could include audit for improvement of service or patient care, teaching of patients, medical students or trainees, research, publications, aspects of hospital management and involvement in simulation courses e.
Flintshire council has a long established trainee programme and is in its 20th anniversary.
Medical trainees were defined as medical residents or interns.