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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
We consecutively collected 173 NDMC graduated trainees who participated in 6 months of PGY training and another 94 trainees who participated for 1 year.
Robert Capper, partner and head of Harrison Clark Rickerbys' commercial department, said: "We introduced Harrison Clark Rickerbys' Trainee Solicitor Awards this year as we felt it important to recognise those who have embraced the overall trainee ethos and who have made a contribution to the trainees as a group, as well as to the wider firm.
Sieber noted that the SwissPhilippines trainee agreement was an innovative instrument for young professionals from both countries to develop their skills and at the same time broaden their personal and cultural experience.
Kwasi Agyeman, Metro Director of Development Planning, tasked the committee to work to satisfaction, and called on the NABCO trainees to support the project wholeheartedly to achieve the set objectives.
"Idol Trainee" can be viewed as a type of Panopticon: the audience, the cameras, and the tutors who have already become "successful" stars all gaze upon the trainees.
Mentors should be engaged in a mentoring Training program with workshops, lectures, group discussion and group presentations and objective should be to help new trainee feel part of the team, foster best practices and enhance productivity and encourage collegiality by sharing knowledge and expertise and finally support the retention through opportunities and support to continuously build and expand professional skills.
The trainees help the elderly residents bathe, eat and use the restroom, doing the same work as Japanese employees.
The maker of Cheez Whiz spread and Oreo cookies said the GTP is different since as leaders, trainees 'are not only given training and knowledge about their home function.'
A trainee must pass the first phase of practical training to be able to move on to the second phase, which includes 14 hours of training, he explained.
Analysing data from trainees who enrolled on the Scheme for Registration between 1 June 2014 and 31 May 2015, the College revealed that 68.5% were women and 31.5% were men.
KARACHI -- Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Youth Development Program (BBSYDP), has successfully completed 10th Phase of training and in this connection, the certificate distribution ceremonies are being organized in institutions all over Sindh where trainees have been trained.

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