A number of studies show, in line with a priori expectations, that a real exchange appreciation reduces the trade balance (Cline, 2010; Garcia-Herrero and Koivu, 2007; Groenewold and He, 2007).
Koo and Zhuang (2007) find that China's bilateral trade balance with the United States would improve if the renminbi appreciated against the US dollar.
However, little attention has been paid to the indirect macroeconomic effects of FDI on the current account through the trade balance.
Firstly, it aims to examine the effects of FDI on the trade balance via exports and imports.
In this study, we measure trade balance as the ratio of the bilateral exports value (X) to the bilateral imports value (M).
We specify the bilateral real trade balance with India, Japan and U.
Greater (lesser) trade balances for a national industry sector favor more lenient (strict) reviews of domestic merger activity under national welfare maximizing antitrust objectives.
Note that the more a domestic industry is characterized by a negative trade balance, the more these qualifications have previously been overcome; that is, negative trade balances suggest that trade entry distribution advertising barriers have been overcome and that foreign firms have superior efficiency relative to domestic firms.
The estimated effects of budget deficits on the trade balance
range from the substantial  to statistically insignificant .
The controversy over the effects of devaluation on the trade balance
arises because according to Frenkel and Johnson [1976, 42] "the monetary approach rejects the emphasis given to the role of relative prices in the analysis of devaluation.
While the critiques of the GL index are based on a presumed distortion in the measurement of the phenomena, which would only affect the aggregate version of the indicator, the inadequacy of the normalized trade balances
as detectors of specialization is also found at the disaggregated level.
Japan electronics trade balance
in the first six months of 1995 was a negative $14.