tracking error

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Tracking error

In an indexing strategy, the standard deviation of the difference between the performance of the benchmark and the replicating portfolio.

Tracking Error

An excessive deviation between an investment or portfolio and some benchmark. It is commonly used with respect to mutual funds, hedges, or other investment vehicles designed to track some index or other benchmark. If the portfolio's performance falls short of the benchmark, especially by a large amount, there is said to be a tracking error; an investor or investment company may wish to re-evaluate how it puts together the portfolio.

tracking error

The difference in the return earned by a portfolio and the return earned by the benchmark against which the portfolio is constructed. For example, if a bond portfolio earns a return of 5.15% during a period when the portfolio's benchmark (say, for example, the Lehman Brothers Index) produces a return of 5.06%, the tracking error is .09%, or 9 basis points.
References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: Figure 6: Terminal tracking errors [e.sub.1,j] and [e.sub.2,j] versus the iteration number j.
Thus, based on (21), the system tracking errors can be convergent stably.
Shown in Figure 16 are the orbits of the center of the shaft and the maximum tracking errors versus number of iterations when the rotor operation speed is 4000 RPM and 6000 RPM.
So the coordinate transformations between these different coordinate frames are directly related to the accuracy of the tracking errors computing, that is, where the error functions on SO(3) are used.
The closed-loop tracking errors could converge to a tiny range around the origin in a very short time (about 0.1 s) just as shown in Figure 9.
Figures 3 and 4 display the tracking errors [e.sub.1] and [e.sub.2], respectively.
If [u.sub.k](t) is the input applied at trial k[member of]N and [e.sub.k](t) is the resulting tracking error, the control design problem is to construct a control law (or algorithm) expressed, for generality, as a functional relationship typified by the equation as follow [22]:
As shown in the figure 3 and 4, the tracking error is smaller than 1mm which is quite acceptable.
During experiments the marker tracking errors along with the distance of marker from camera were recorded in a text file.
The simulation shows tracking errors tend to zero in despite of parametric uncertainties and disturbances.
The composite adaptive controller is driven using the information from both the tracking errors and the parameter errors.
In this section, we will check the stability of the closed-loop system and the convergence of tracking errors by CEF-based analysis.