Current immunological tests, such as the ELISA, cannot distinguish between the active and inactive form of Shiga toxin
in processed food.
by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan,
That same lack of rigidity, however, is what makes the toxins
susceptible to the neutralizing effects of defensins.
This "nanosponge vaccine" enabled the immune systems of mice to block the adverse effects of the alpha-haemolysin toxin
from MRSA-both within the bloodstream and on the skin.
The cartridges were washed with 6 mL 20% methanol and the toxins
were eluted in 5 mL methanol.
In contrast, reports of naturally occurring disease-causing strains that do not produce toxin
A+B- variants) are extremely rare.
After all, botulinum toxin
is the world's most potent natural toxin
--millions of times more poisonous than cyanide.
The team also injected botulinum toxins
into the rodents' whisker pads and found evidence that the toxins
had traveled to the part of the brain stem that controls muscles used for facial expression.
Prevalence and genetic characterization of toxin
A variant strains of Clostridium difficile among adults and children with diarrhea in France.
Thus, the increased responsiveness to toxin
in persons with preexisting airway disease may be linked to their underlying airway inflammation at the time of toxin
Bacteria produce toxins
under stressful conditions, as when they are too crowded, are denied food, or are fighting back against antibiotics.
A new sensing technique developed by USDA-ARS scientists is able to detect heat-resistant toxins
in such products as ham, milk and eggs.