Toxin

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Related to Toxins: bacterial toxins

Toxin

Any poisonous substance a living thing produces as part of its metabolic or other natural process. That is, toxins themselves are not living things, but are produced by living things. Toxins are defined by the Biological Weapons Convention.
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Because these toxins are proteins, they do not leave any artificial residues as they decompose.
'In the absence of oxygen, they germinate, grown and then excrete toxins,' the WHO says, adding that there are seven distinct forms but only four (types A, B, E and rarely F) cause human botulism.
Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- A toxin much like the one that causes botulism has unexpectedly turned up in a completely different type of bacteria - Enterococcus.
Biomarkers for CDI include toxins A and B, GDH, and the genes for toxins A and B.
* Current tests for bacterial toxins are expensive and not always accurate.
Contact: Luisa Wai Wai Cheng, USDA-ARS Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research, Western Regional Research Center, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710.
Summary: The reaction dynamics of Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis with sodium, calcium and lead ions was studied by fluorescence quenching technique.
Saxitoxin derivatives are regularly dissolved in chloridric or acetic acid for better stability, so before the fixation procedure, the toxins were lyophilized and resuspended in 25 mM MES buffer (Sigma-Aldrich, MO).
Not every single toxin will be affected, but many toxins will," says Dmitri Kudryashov, assistant professor of chemistry and biochemistry at Ohio State University, Columbus, and senior author of the study.
"Cancer-killing toxins have been used with great success in a variety of blood cancers, but they don't work as well in solid tumors because the cancers aren't as accessible and the toxins have a short half-life," said Shah.
Shah's stem cells escape this fate because they arc made with a mutation that doesn't allow the toxin to act inside the cell.
Van Melderen, "New toxins homologous to ParE belonging to three-component toxin-antitoxin systems in Escherichia coli O157:H7," Molecular Microbiology, vol.