# topographic map

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## topographic map

A map that shows the contours of the land via a two-dimensional drawing with multitudes of contour lines showing changes in elevations.Each map has its own scale.The contour lines indicate a change in elevation by the scale amount. For example, each line might represent a 1-foot change in elevation. The distance between the lines can be computed by reference to the distance scale.For example,1 inch might equal 50 feet.Two contour lines that are 1 inch apart would indicate a grade of 1 foot over the course of 50 feet, which is very gentle. The closer the lines on the topographic map, the steeper the incline.

The Complete Real Estate Encyclopedia by Denise L. Evans, JD & O. William Evans, JD. Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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M2 PRESSWIRE-September 5, 2019-: OYO, MHIR and Incubit Develops an AI Model Predicting Possible Mudflows from Topographic Map
Having found the canal, the next task was to trace it onto the modern topographic map. This was surprisingly easy, because although the waterways have vanished from the physical scene, the legal access rights associated with them have not (You may take a boat there, as long as you don't mind carrying it, like the unusable public domains in Fig.
In order to record the condition of objects and to monitor the geometric changes, it is proposed to use the following archival cartographic material data sources: contour photo plan or geographic location of different period, scale 1: 10,000 (archive of the Lithuanian state company Land Fund); topographic maps of different periods of the geographic location of the scale 1: 25,000 or 1: 50,000 (Land Information System (LIS)) data from on-line (http://www.
Figure 7 depicts the 2D and 3D representations of the three types of topographic maps, where (a) graph is the distance topographic map [I.sub.Dist], (b) graph is the unmodified gradient topographic map [nabla]I, and (c) graph is the modified gradient topographic map [[nabla]I.sub.mark] .
When updating and creating features on topographic maps, SuperSurv is especially useful because it supports high-accuracy GPS positioning, OpenStreetMap, and OGC standards.
These methods have produced good results for some high-quality topographic maps, but the results are not satisfactory for low-quality maps, mainly due to the following three problems [5]: (1) color aliasing and false colors on scanned maps due to poor paper (such as paper turning yellow over time) or printing quality and the performance of the scanner (on a 96-dot-per-inch (DPI) resolution map, most contour lines are 2 to 4 pixels in width; thus, color deviation occupies a large portion in pixels of lines); (2) conglutination of adjacent lines to form thick lines in some areas of a scanned map where contour lines are densely distributed [6]; (3) a large number of contour lines gaps caused by intersecting and overlapping information on a topographic map after color segmentation.
Standard CORINE records of land cover mapping are based on computer processing technology of satellite images with the use of ancillary data (topographic maps, aerial photo images, thematic maps).
Sources for the maps include USGS topographic maps, atlases, official railroad company maps, employee timetables, and track charts.
Furthermore, 90 m SRTM DEM, refined 30 m SRTM DEM and DEMs 30 m and 90 m derived from official topographic maps (1:100,000 scale) were used.
This article presents the results of differentiating symbols in 3D topographic maps using thematic cartographic techniques, such that they act as landmarks in nonimmersive virtual environments.
Also, participants will fulfill on topographic maps of the general planning of combat operations.
The features came to light in 3-D topographic maps of the moon's surface created from radar, infrared and visual images taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft, reported USGS geophysicist Randolph Kirk at the American Geophysical Union's fall meeting.

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