The Tokyo Round
was from the outset driven by the United States, in conjunction with the European Community and Japan.
these countries until it was replaced by the Tokyo Round
Code in 1979.
and Cairns Group negotiators seem to have ignored one of the key lessons of both the Kennedy Round and the Tokyo Round
, namely, that it is not possible to pressure major economic powers such as the European Community and Japan into implementing proposals they strongly oppose.
She also finds that the Tokyo Round
halved preferential margins and reduced the trade effects by 62 percent.
Together, the EC and the United States conducted a largely bipolar negotiation, with each 'superpower' effectively possessing a veto over the various Tokyo Round
(27) By the start of the Tokyo Round
of the GATT in the mid-1970s, however, Airbus Industrie had been created and the issue of civil aircraft subsidies had become contentious.
=The ministers gave themselves four years to complete it.--The original 15 Uruguay Round issues were: tariffs, non-tariff =barriers, natural resource products, textiles and clothing, agriculture, =tropical products, GATT articles, Tokyo Round
codes, anti-dumping, =subsidies, intellectual property, investment measures, dispute =settlement, the GATT system, and services.--Two years later, in December 1988, ministers met again in Montreal, =Canada, to assess progress at the round's half-way point, but already =the talks seemed deadlocked.
Germany, which also holds the Presidency of the G-7 (Group of Seven most industrialised nations), will seek to bring Washington and Tokyo round
to the Union's proposal at the next G-7 Finance meeting in Bonn on February 20.
The best two European and American teams gain direct entry to Tokyo rounded
out by the topnotchers from Africa, Oceania and Asia.
off the top-three while Paris leads the way for Europe in fifth with 4,000.
on Lee, who had previously been viewed as a pragmatist with whom it could deal.