Although early Portuguese and Dutch trade with Japan was eventually restricted by Tokugawa
seclusion policies, a large bullion-for-silk trade with China persisted.
For most of the Tokugawa
period the 20,000-30,000 Ainu were under the suzerainty of Matsumae, an autonomous domain under the authority of the Tokugawa
Sato shows that the Tokugawa
years witnessed important "advances in the organization of farm work, the technology of agronomy, and the use of fertilizers and crop varieties".
Following unification under the Tokugawa
shogunate in 1600, hundreds of urban nuclei--ports, temple towns, post stations, and castle towns--were established or expanded, attracting warriors, merchants, artisans, and rural migrants by the thousands.
There are some strengths to this book: Hirai's attention to status and geography (and, if less, to gender) as well as to how laws that emanated from above played out on the ground, her treatment of the final fifteen years of the shogunate as a time apart (chapter 10), her choice to focus on the obedience of the "outer lords" to gauge the authority of the Tokugawa
, and the inclusion of a translation of Tsunayoshi's edict.
Hideyoshi was, at that time, locked in a death struggle with the Tokugawa
clan headed by Ieyasu.
Drawing on 60 primary documents dealing with the Tokugawa
period of shoguns (hereditary military government leaders), 1650-1868, Vaporis (history/Asian studies, U.
shogunate was partially based upon Chinese legal and institutional models.
Individual essays include "Frontier Tales: Tokugawa
Japan in Translation", "Self Preservation: French Travels between Cuisine and Industrie", "Boundary-crossings, Cultural Encounters and Knowledge Spaces in Early Australia", and much more.
Second, Japan's restrictive foreign policy during the Tokugawa
era and its geographic remove from global trade routes curtailed the flow of information to Japan from the rest of the world.
The late Yoshihiro Tokugawa
, a former grand chamberlain to Emperor Hirohito, told poet Hirohiko Okano about what he claimed were the views of the emperor, posthumously known as Emperor Showa, according to Okano.
Ozawa likened the Upper House election next summer to the 1600 Battle of Sekigahara, in which Tokugawa
Ieyasu defeated opposing feudal lords, clearing the path for the Tokugawa
Shogunate three years later.