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Gainful employment. Strictly speaking, a job refers to employment by another person or company, but the word is often used to describe self-employment as well. Because individuals are compensated for their work at their jobs, these are considered necessary for a society to function. According to Keynesian economics, the money one earns from a job can create more jobs because the money creates demand for goods and services that must be provided. Supply-side economics, on the other hand, maintains that lower taxes are best for job creation.


  1. a work task or series of work tasks to be performed. For factory operatives the work tasks are often clearly defined as a specific set of machining or assembly operations. By contrast, at senior management level, work tasks are less clearly defined and managers have more discretion as to the range of tasks to be performed and how they are performed.
  2. a unit of good or service for which costs can be ascertained. The job or cost unit could consist of a single order. Alternatively, the job or cost unit could be a batch or group of identical products passing together through production.


a work task or series of work tasks to be performed in order to produce a good or service. Jobs differ in terms of skills, physical fitness, personality, etc., requirements, and in terms of the decision-making autonomy and responsibilities involved. Some jobs involve a wide-ranging set of work tasks while others may be broken down into a number of narrowly defined activities through a ‘division of labour’. Such SPECIALIZATION is often conducive to achieving high levels of labour PRODUCTIVITY in industries such as motor-car assembly that utilize mass production techniques. In other cases, productivity may be enhanced by grouping together larger numbers of work tasks to form individual jobs. Job design has an important effect on job satisfaction and thus levels of absenteeism, labour turnover, industrial disputes, etc., which affect productivity In some instances the process of specialization has been partially reversed by programmes of job enlargement (adding additional tasks to provide greater variety), 288

job rotation (where workers rotate jobs to reduce monotony) and job enrichment (where workers are given greater scope in deciding how tasks should be performed).

References in periodicals archive ?
First, the fact that managers tend to assume there is more of a connection between staff attitudes toward their jobs and staff performance than in fact there is does not mean necessarily that there is never a connection.
It can be assumed that most work supervisors and company managers are reasonably well matched to their jobs and reasonably good at what they do.
Another study also found that productivity and social problems, alone or combined, could explain why people with severe disabilities lost their jobs (Hanley-Maxwell, Rusch, Chadsey-Rusch & Renzaglia, 1986).
com, a leading developer of web services helping people streamline their job search and advance in their career.
Students continued to see internships as an integral part of their job search process, ranking it as the 2nd most effective job search resource, up from 7th last year.
Two key indices are measured: the Spherion Job Security Index, which captures how likely respondents think it is that they will lose their job or that their job will be eliminated in the next 12 months; and the Spherion Job Transition Index, which captures how likely respondents are to look for a new job in the next 12 months.
58 percent of survey respondents are very satisfied with their job, down two points from July.
Bain estimates that roughly 40,000 jobs are currently offshored each month - or approximately 1% of all job losses," said Mark Gottfredson, partner and co-head of the Capability Sourcing Practice for Bain & Company, "that means that 50 times more Americans quit their job each month, than get offshored.
According to the survey, 59% of Greater Boston's job changers utilize BostonWorks, in both print and online, as tools in their job search.
This association with DiversityInc Media is great news for Job Market advertisers who can now efficiently target their job postings to reach a more diverse pool of job candidates and enjoy more control over the use of their recruitment dollars," said Jyll Holzman, senior vice president of advertising at The New York Times.
The Interactive Job Fair is a logical extension of CEC's online placement site, which already has become a key tool for many CEC students and alumni in their job search strategy, Bennicoff said.
If he seems like a throwback to an era when members of the working press identified with other working stiffs, that's because he remembers an American economy where workers expected that, if they did their work well and their employers prospered, their jobs would not be in jeopardy.