The questions were subcategorized into ten areas: (1) education of female athletes about breast self-examination, (2) education of female athletes about breast cancer, (3) education of male athletes about testicular self-examination, (4) education of male athletes about testicular cancer, (5) knowledge of the risk factors of breast cancer, (6) knowledge of the risk factors of testicular cancer, (7) breast self-examination techniques, (8) testicular self-examination techniques, (9) preventive behaviors of breast cancer, and (10) preventive behaviors of testicular cancer.
Certified athletic trainers were better able to recognize the breast self-examination (Table 7) and testicular self-examination techniques (Table 8) when presented in statement format.
It also recommends that men practice monthly testicular self-examination (ACS, 1993).
Studies examining the prevalence of testicular cancer screening have focused on physician self-reports of their practice of testicular examinations (Misener & Fuller, 1995; Singer, Tichler, Orvieto, Finestone, & Moskovitz, 1993; Sladden & Dickinson, 1995), physician self-reported rates of testicular self-examination (TSE) education (Brenner, Hergenroeder, Kozinetz, & Kelder, 2003; Misener & Fuller, 1995; Sayger, Fortenberry, & Beckman, 1988), or patient self-reported practice of TSE (Katz, Meyers, & Walls, 1995; Khadra & Oakeshott, 2002; Moore & Topping, 1999; Neef, Scutchfield, Edlder, & Bender, 1991; Wardle, Steptpe, Burckhardt, Vogele, Vila, & Zarczynski, 1994; Wynd, 2002).
Downtime in the waiting room is also used to inform men about cancers of the male reproductive tract, describe how the testicles are examined during a comprehensive physical, demonstrate testicular self-examinations
and provide guidance about what to do if symptoms are observed (i.