scientific management

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scientific management

an approach to JOB DESIGN advocated by F. W. Taylor (1856-1915), an American WORK STUDY engineer. Taylor sought to increase output by improving management competence and by careful attention to job design. Specifically, he advocated close analysis of job tasks through the methods of work study as a basis for achieving an extreme degree of job specialization. All decisionmaking about task performance was to pass to management, who were to create ‘thinking departments’ to analyse and plan work tasks. Supervision of performance was to be undertaken by ‘functional foremen’, responsible for particular aspects of the production process (for example maintenance). Workers would be motivated by pay incentives to work to the full extent of their abilities, and the best workers should be selected for each particular job. Taylor believed that adoption of his system would lead to high levels of efficiency In reality his theory ignored the importance of JOB SATISFACTION. Adoption of his methods led to STRIKES and CONFLICT. See FORDISM, METHOD STUDY.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mannion and Exworthy describe standardised processing of patients as McDonaldization (a new take on the older concept of Taylorization).
The standardized heterosexuality of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with its logic of identity and difference, underpins sexo-industrial Taylorization and genital Fordism.
The demands universal education was placing on education systems in the postwar industrial world required changes to thinking about how curriculum could be delivered; one answer to the resource conundrum was the invention of various "teaching machines." In his history of classroom uses of technology, Larry Cuban (1986) notes that the dream of efficiency in education manifested itself as the Taylorization of the classroom, in which the integration of the student into mechanized feedback loops was hoped to increase speed and standardization.
Deskilling of nursing associates caring for the elderly in long term care has also taken the shape of Taylorization (Theobald, 2012).
In fact, in her description of Petra's early-morning cooking, Viramontes appears to echo the language of Taylorization, with its instrumentalized and routinized bodily movements.
Bazin had already come up with a title similarto"Carolinization" a year earlier (1952), in an article for Le Parisien libere about another costume film, "Ivanhoe: The Taylorization of Walter Scott," in which he also played on homonymy, although this time a little gratuitously.
Bedeian, "'The Taylorization of Lenin: rhetoric or reality?," International Journal of Social Economics, 31 (2004), 287-299.
(11) In the nineteenth century, in accordance with the establishment of the general principle of conservation of energy, which asserts that all the forces of nature (electricity, magnetism, heat, and mechanical work) are forms of a single universal energy, the human body was re-conceptualized as a thermodynamic machine, and its work as a metaphor of "physiochemical exchange." Social energetism, "human motor," muscular thermodynamics, Helmholtzianism, physiology of the labor, ergonomics, psychotechnics, and Taylorization configured the body as a system of economies of force and a focal point for new techniques of production.
Taylorization became popular among all types of managers but is best known for having been inflicted on factory laborers in order to increase their productivity.
The history of scientific approaches to educational evaluation and assessment dates back to the time and motion studies of Taylor and the subsequent Taylorization of schooling.
There is no indication here that industrial work in the South was undergoing a process of Taylorization that led to a labor revolt in Carolina textile mills in the late 1920s.