scientific management

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scientific management

an approach to JOB DESIGN advocated by F. W. Taylor (1856-1915), an American WORK STUDY engineer. Taylor sought to increase output by improving management competence and by careful attention to job design. Specifically, he advocated close analysis of job tasks through the methods of work study as a basis for achieving an extreme degree of job specialization. All decisionmaking about task performance was to pass to management, who were to create ‘thinking departments’ to analyse and plan work tasks. Supervision of performance was to be undertaken by ‘functional foremen’, responsible for particular aspects of the production process (for example maintenance). Workers would be motivated by pay incentives to work to the full extent of their abilities, and the best workers should be selected for each particular job. Taylor believed that adoption of his system would lead to high levels of efficiency In reality his theory ignored the importance of JOB SATISFACTION. Adoption of his methods led to STRIKES and CONFLICT. See FORDISM, METHOD STUDY.
Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Importantly, media companies want to turn humans into processors (Gehl, 2011) by using Taylorist approaches that divide their work flow into distinct repetitive elements, creating an assembly-line work space, and increasing the rhythm (in terms of speed of their movements but also repetitiveness) of their work.
After the signing of the Treaty of Detroit, workers saw the renewed arrival of Taylorist "time-study men" behind their stations.
Alexander's proposals have provided a concrete goal for people to aim at, to change the nature of the work so that people are no longer reduced to instruments of Taylorist management structures, but can appreciate the products of their work as participation in the formation of life.
Thus Colenso (2000) reports that: (1) the primary unit of kaizen is a team; (2) teams can learn better and faster than organisations; (3) autonomous units therefore can be more productive; (4) such teams can focus on the sequence and flow of production in a self-directed manner rather than constantly needing Taylorist monitoring; (5) feeding up on what can be done better is more effective than whether a top down Taylorist operational design has been fulfilled (Taylor, 2011).
It is a Taylorist diagram of strange efficiencies and a nostalgia for language.
(29) Shenhav points out that the standardisation of instrumentation, which late nineteenth century engineers in the US pushed for, extended directly into the standardisation of workers that we are more familiar with from Taylorist discourses of scientific management.
Taylorist form is characterized by hierarchical structures, various constraints in work, repetitiveness and monotony of tasks, however often teamwork and job rotation are used to improve flexibility of production or services (i.e.
The bounds of this purview are established by a radically positivist approach to education, a revival of Taylorist scientific management popularized at the turn of the 20th century.
Individuals become reified, pliable to the impelling rhythm of machines like workers on a Taylorist conveyor belt.
The Taylorist model of the scientific organization of work refers to the rationalization of the work through methods and technical studies that allow to systematically perfect times and movements required from workers in executing their tasks.
Wisner (1987) points out that the work in agriculture can be considered complex, in contrast to industrial, Taylorist type of work, in which the operator has a single task, very closely defined by the work organization.