scientific management

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scientific management

an approach to JOB DESIGN advocated by F. W. Taylor (1856-1915), an American WORK STUDY engineer. Taylor sought to increase output by improving management competence and by careful attention to job design. Specifically, he advocated close analysis of job tasks through the methods of work study as a basis for achieving an extreme degree of job specialization. All decisionmaking about task performance was to pass to management, who were to create ‘thinking departments’ to analyse and plan work tasks. Supervision of performance was to be undertaken by ‘functional foremen’, responsible for particular aspects of the production process (for example maintenance). Workers would be motivated by pay incentives to work to the full extent of their abilities, and the best workers should be selected for each particular job. Taylor believed that adoption of his system would lead to high levels of efficiency In reality his theory ignored the importance of JOB SATISFACTION. Adoption of his methods led to STRIKES and CONFLICT. See FORDISM, METHOD STUDY.
References in periodicals archive ?
What we know as modern construction, is the application of Taylorism to the assembly of physical components.
The creative industries are "not immune to technological displacement and digital taylorism" (Altass & Wiebe, 2017, p.
Charlie Chaplin spoofed Taylorism in his film, "Modern Times," where the Little Tramp has a nervous breakdown trying to meet the expectations of a dehumanized work environment.
Taylorism is a theory of scientific management of work systems developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor between the 1880s and 1910s, whose main purpose was to make the factory workplace more efficient so as to maximize labor productivity.
"Progressives," writes Leonard, "regarded small business as inefficient and outmoded, and they largely applauded its destruction." In factories, progressives embraced Taylorism's surveillance and micromanagement of workers because it promised to create surpluses so large that labor and management would both be satisfied with their cut, thereby promoting industrial harmony.
Although the ideologies of scientific management eventually ceded ground to organizational theory based on more humanistic principles (Jreisat, 1997), the reemergence of scientific management in modern education results in what Au (2011) refers to as new Taylorism.
But our social and political institutions, inherited from a period of Taylorism, mass consumption and catching-up development are ill-suited to meet these new challenges.
Amazon's shop-floor processes are an extreme variant of Taylorism that Frederick Winslow Taylor himself, a near century after his death, would have no trouble recognizing.
Due to a combination of inter-related features, including the exhaustion of the productivity-realising potential of mechanised Taylorism in lead sectors (De Vroey, 1984), the resistance of workers to intensified exploitation and job fragmentation (Braverman, 1974; Aglietta, 1979), the internationalisation of production (Ivanova, 2011), the erosion of US hegemony, the 1970s oil shock and the crisis of the post-War Bretton Woods financial institutions (De Vroey, 1984), Fordist countries began to run into serious, and ultimately insurmountable, obstacles from the early 1970s onwards.
Initially, Taylorism was hailed as a progressive force that would free workers from the whim of autocratic bosses and benefit all.
Kara Reilly's essay "The Tiller Girls: Mass Ornament and Modern Girl" interestingly places their dance and cultural significance within the context of the Taylorism of factory economy and production processes and the militaristic routine and training of mechanistic repetition.
At the LMS, Lemon had introduced the principles of Taylorism across the organisation to increase labour productivity.