58/kwh, adjustable for transmission costs and with potential for tariff escalations
on account of certain input costs.
Furthermore, a country that experiences inflation in excess of inflation among its trade partners will experience lobbying among firms for tariff escalations to be able to compete with the outside world (Magee, Brock, and Young 1989).
This finding suggests that the tariff escalations in the 1880s, the beginning of the 1920s, and the 1930s were in part or entirely deflation induced, assuming that price changes were equally influential for tariff rates before World War l and during World War II.
The regressions suggest that tile tariff escalations during the period 1929 1932 had strong negative growth effects.
The tariff escalations over the period from 1916 to 1932 contributed significantly to a reduction in the growth rates during that period.
It envisions reduction or elimination of industrial tariffs as well as an attack on tariff peaks, tariff escalations and non-tariff barriers in particular on products of interest to developing countries.
and, if feasible, aim at elimination of all other MFN rates of tariffs and tariff escalations in sectors where they exist;
Moreover, tariff peaks, tariff escalation, tariff rate quotas and other non-tariff measures including antidumping duties, countervailing duties, and safeguard measures to protect against serious injury from import surges, allowed under the WTO, have become major impediments to market access for developing countries exports.
It also stresses the need to address tariff peaks, tariff escalation and non-tariff barriers such as import quotas and technical standards.
They find that the tariff escalations from 1929 to 1932 explain almost half of the decline in exports and imports using their "low tariff case," which corresponds to the macro tariff rates used here.
These figures are important because they suggest that the tariff escalations may have been motivated more by political interests than by economic distress.
tariff escalations adversely affected income, thus implying that a larger proportion of the trade collapse should be attributed to the escalations of the trade barriers than the 41%.