To take the example of the United States, I find that the level of trade costs in the year 2000, expressed as a tariff equivalent
, is lowest for Canada at 25%, followed by Mexico at 33%.
Known as Welsh Bac, it offers the potential for a UCAS tariff equivalent
to an A grade at A-level, and is a recognised entry qualification for the majority of higher education courses and institutions in the UK.
In this case, the ad valorem tariff equivalent
is the difference between the domestic and world prices relative to the world price.
And at oil prices at US$200 per barrel, the tariff equivalent
rate will rise to 15 per cent.
For each pupil attending, a school will receive a tariff equivalent
to the national average cost of educating a child ( approximately pounds 5,500 by 2007-08.
Thus, for the European Union, agricultural tariffs against developing countries average 33 percent, whereas the tariff equivalent
of subsidies stands at 10 percent.
The expression for the tariff equivalent
of the optimum quota in Palivos and Yip (1997a) does not depend on the interest rate.
Indeed, in some cases the average merchandise tariff is significantly greater than the estimated services tariff equivalent
(South and Southeast Asia, Middle East, and North Africa).
Upon completion and operation of the Fourth Line project, Transener will receive a fixed annual cash tariff equivalent
An example is the replacement of quotas by their tariff equivalent
(tariffication) in an attempt to reduce rent seeking associated with the trade regime.
The first component captures the disincentives for free riding; the second is a proxy for the size of the jackpot benefits expected for a given tariff or tariff equivalent
Economists often calculate ad valorem tariff equivalents