Drawing on earlier studies, a TVE
is adapted from prior literature in order to conceptualise the various elements and is presented in diagrammatic form displayed in Figure 1.
According to the variable loadings, this component included variables of urbanisation, the ratio of TVE
workers to the total rural population, the ratio of wage income to rural household income and the ratio of food consumption to urban household consumption of nonagricultural products.
Total yearend manufacturing employment in China is derived by adding manufacturing employment in urban units to manufacturing employment in TVEs
In the southern Jiangsu town of Wangshi, each of the 93 TVEs
in 1985 had some form of sub-contracting or joint venture relationship with SOEs of Shanghai area.
In China, land reforms that took place from the 1940s broke the power of the landlords, and were marked by rapid, decentralised industrial accumulation without dispossession from the land, while within the TVEs
, the intensive cultivation of small plots of land was combined with industrial and other forms of non-agricultural work, and with investments in the improvement of the quality of labour.
These two TVEs
stand as counterexamples to Jean Oi's contention that the Chinese state was the chief instigator of the economic transformation of the rural economy and that TVEs
(and their success) were the result of "local state corporatism." It is worth noting, however, that Jupiter obtained the vast majority of its startup capital from a loan by a government-owned bank (60).
Por supuesto esta medida ha sido muy controversial y ha dado paso a nuevas movilizaciones y protestas en Venezuela por parte de algunos sectores politicos y de la sociedad civil que consideran que esa medida, para algunos de "cierre" para otros "vencimiento de concesion", atenta contra la libertad de expresion 18 Tambien sectores afectos al gobierno se han movilizado para defender la medida en contra de RCTV, a favor de la televisora TVES
, que paso a ocupar el espacio del canal 2.
In fact, much of the success of China's TVEs
was initiated under the early reform regime, where tax authority was significantly decentralized.
For loans to township and village enterprises (TVEs
), the RCCs' proportion also expanded from 32.1 per cent in 1979 to 69.5 per cent in 1997, and to 77.3 per cent in 2001.
This is closely linked to the phenomenal growth of Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs
), a central element in a locally orchestrated process of rural industrialisation.
(Venezuela's first public broadcaster) and TeleSur (the regional, multi-nation supported operation) reach much smaller audiences.
The first reform decade indeed saw some magnificent achievements: including 'liberating the mind' (a self-critical movement within the Communist Party); political and economic decentralisation, including efforts to limit the terms of leading cadres, and to separate party and government, administration and entrepreneurial management; and efforts to alleviate poverty, and the promotion of collective township and village enterprises (TVEs
), so as to provide employment, income and prosperity to local communities.