Aggregate earnings data for urban units and TVEs
are combined to construct an estimate of direct labor costs in China's manufacturing sector.
were still being pushed to meet agricultural needs and to the rural population.
167) Contra Peerenboom, Long Match, supra note 124, who argues that "[t]he dramatic reversal of the fortunes of TVEs
raises doubts about the benefits of clientelism, and supports the view that clientelism is to a large extent a short-term reaction to an undeveloped and immature market economy and weak legal system" (ibid.
TABLE A1 Definitions of Firm-Level Variables Variable Name Definition Owner's attributes PC member 1 if a member of the PC at any level, 0 otherwise CPPCC member 1 if a member of the CPPCC at any level, 0 otherwise Education Yeas of schooling Rural origin 1 if born in rural regions Party Member 1 if a party member, 0 otherwise Former public firm manager 1 if formerly served as manager in SOE or TVE
Firm's attributes Firm age How many years ago the firm has come into existence Employment (persons) Number of persons employed.
Even if TVEs
wanted to learn, their managers' learning ability was significantly constrained by the lack of previous industry experience.
Foreign-owned enterprises (FOEs) began entering China and replacing both SOEs and TVEs
The introduction of Delta-Omega's technology to the TVES
mechanical soil washing processes should significantly enhance the TVES
processes by making them more efficient and economical.
Butterwick Hospice, based in Stockton, thanked Durham University's Stockton campus for use of the Waterside restaurant and first-aiders provided by TVES
In consequence, a large number of SOEs were transformed into joint-stock companies, declared bankrupt, merged with other enterprises, or sold to private individuals, and a majority of TVEs
transformed their ownership rights from local governments to private investors in the late 1990s.
12) The public sector share has been shrinking fast over the present decade, especially due to the relative decline of TVEs
, collectives, and cooperatives, and to the parallel correspondent emergence of a growing number of domestic private enterprises (DPrivEs) (see Table 1).
In this article, total manufacturing employment for China as a whole is calculated by combining manufacturing employment in TVEs
(rather than "rural employment") with "manufacturing employment in urban units.
are a plausible explanation for increased mortality observed in studies with high hemoglobin (Hb) targets.