However, since a substance is considered positive if it induces a positive result in at least one tester strain, an initial Ames test was done in Salmonella typhimurium TA100
(detection of base pair substitutions (Barnes et al., 1982)) with and without an external metabolic activation system.
Bacterial tester strains Salmonella Typhimurium TA98, TA100
, TA1535, and TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA were obtained from MOLTOX Inc., P.O.
Antibacterial activity of compounds 4a,b was evaluated on a number of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC[R] 29213[TM], Bacillus subtilis 168, Staphylococcus epidermidis (clinical isolate), and Micrococcus luteus (clinical isolate)) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC[R] 25922[TM], Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC[R] 27853[TM], Salmonella typhimurium TA100
asperellum 47.73 (c) (*) Means with different superscript are significantly different at 5% level of significance using DMRT Table 3: Percent growth inhibition of crude extracts of Trichoderma species Crude extract concentration ([micro]l/ml) Growth inhibition (%) TA100
9.23 (e) TA500 24.40 (a) TA1000 8.69 (e) TL100 9.00 (e) TL500 14.49 (c) TL1000 12.00 (d) TH100 11.22 (d) TH500 15.58 (b) TH1000 11.53 (d) (*) Means with different subscript are significantly different at 5% level of significance Table 4: Disease severity of the onion bulb Treatments Mean of Lesions Grading Control (uninoculated and untreated) (mm) Scale C.
The assays were performed with strains of Salmonella Typhimurium TA97a, TA98, TA100
, and TA102 in the presence and absence of metabolic activation.
Stationary growth cultures of histidine auxotrophic Salmonella typhimurium (2 x [10.sup.9] cells/mL) TA97, TA98, TA100
, TA102, and TA1535 strains were obtained at 37[degrees]C in lysogenic broth (LB, 10 g/L tryptone; 5 g/L yeast extract; 10 g/LNaCl) containing 8 [micro]g/mL ampicillin and 2 [micro]g/mL tetracycline (only for TA102).
typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100
in the presence (+S9) and absence (-S9) of metabolic activation.
This effect was evaluated by the probability of producing a positive Ames Test outcome (Ames test against Salmonella typhimurium TA97a, TA98, TA100
, TA102, TA104, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538), a positive endocrine disruptor test outcome, hERG inhibition and irritant effects.
We performed a Salmonella plate-incorporation mutagenicity assay as described by Maron and Ames (1983) using strains TA98, TA100
, TA104, and YG1041 [+ or -] metabolic activation (S9 mix).
typhimurium strain TA100
specifically requires a base-pair substitution to become autotrophic for histidine (McCann et al.
Mutagenic activity: Mutagenic activity investigation of seed and seedling crude extracts was performed against two test strains of Salmonella TA98 and TA100
for evaluation of their potential ability to cause cancer.
Moreover, other alkaloids from this plant, such as dictamine, gamma-fagarine, ptelein, and kokusagine, had a strong mutagenic effect on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 without S9 mix, and moderate mutagenic effects with and without S9 mix on TA100
strain (PAULINI et al., 1987).