"Until these coherences were observed in synthetic systems
, it remained dubious that such a complex phenomenon could be recreated outside of nature," Hayes said.
"We think we've cracked the code for interfacing natural and synthetic systems
," said study author Ting Xu, a Berkeley professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Department of Chemistry, whose lab led the work.
A variety of biological synthetic systems
are discussed, including algae, diatoms and chrysophytes, bacteria, and yeasts, as well as processes that utilize nonliving biologically derived components, such as plant extracts to modulate redox properties of the synthetic environment, isolated proteins with useful template shapes, and chelators to control size.
The objective of researchers in developing synthetic systems
has been to understand the natural world comprehensively and to apply the acquired insights towards beneficial applications.
As technologies progress, it appears from this collection of 19 articles, boundaries blur between living and synthetic systems
, with information and communication technologies providing increasing opportunities for the assimilation of living environments to changes in technological infrastructures.