This number is likely still low due to survivor bias
. One-third of the deaths were attributed to delayed or interrupted health care.
"Our estimate of 4645 excess deaths from September 20 through December 31, 2017, is likely to be conservative since subsequent adjustments for survivor bias
and household-size distributions increase this estimate to more than 5000," the study argues.
Previous authors have speculated that such associations may be masked by healthy worker survivor bias
(Arrighi and Hertz-Picciotto 1994), a bias in occupational studies that may obscure causal relationships.
Looking only at the stars among new businesses is misleading because of survivor bias
: Naturally, the top startups were the successful ones.
It's survivor bias
. When we look at the Mark Zuckerberg's of the world, we're talking about a very small handful of entrepreneurs who hit it big--and look at them as if they had some magic wand.
We evaluated BMI at only one time point; thus, our results could be affected by survivor bias
. While we have no reason to believe survivors would report their weight differently than the comparison, some survivors have poorer functional health .
However, the problem with this source of evidence for average returns is that it fails to take into account survivor bias
: in general the performance of a stock market index excludes the failures.
They also have the problem of survivor bias
that was described with cross sectional studies.
These studies generally showed a time-dependent decline in infection risk in patients treated with anti-TNF agents, but this apparent drop off in risk over time is largely due to survivor bias
: People who develop serious infections or other problems early on drop out of treatment, so the case mix changes, he explained.
While assets under management continues to be one common criterion institutional investors use to judge future success, industry sources who seek to weaken the association between AUM and performance claim to analyze the argument from a more critical lens, citing survivor bias
. The impact of assets under management -- and the conclusion that smaller or larger managers outperform -- is overstated because of backfill bias, according to Allen, who notes that the bias highlights misconstrued notions about active management.
Is there potential "survivor bias
" in the Barclay manager index?
In subsequent analyses, the researchers excluded patients who died or had care withdrawn within the first 24-48 hours after admission in order to eliminate any potential survivor bias
(i.e., only those who lived long enough received their beta-blockers).