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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
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We obtained extensive surveillance cultures of 281 common environmental sources by swab culture of equipment and surfaces within patient rooms, restrooms, nursing stations, electronics, furniture, patient care devices, patient transport carts, sinks, and water taps.
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In the wake of the Hewlett-Packard spying scandal, a business ethics specialist from Kansas State University, Manhattan, thinks companies must be careful not to abuse their power and create a surveillance culture that ignores the privacy rights of their stakeholders.
Which is why we should be concerned about the creeping surveillance culture that has made Britons the most spied upon people in the world outside Russia and China.
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"We also threw a literary premise into the mix, Orwell's 1984, and the concept of `Big Brother' and surveillance culture. They picked up on it straight away: CCTV constantly covers their neighbourhood."
What is revelatory is how this film's exposure of surveillance culture is increasingly tangled up in the agendas of its filmmaker and subject 6 with puzzles and perplexity that can risk clouding viewers' judgement that threaten to obscure one of the most important issues of our time: state surveillance of the citizenry on a grand scale.
This article argues that to make sense of surveillance today, the concept of surveillance culture should be added to the conceptual tool kit.
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From March to July 2013, nine patients with positive cultures for NDM-producing Escherichia coli (eight clinical cultures and one rectal surveillance culture) were identified in northeastern Illinois.

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