This explanation would suggest that supermajority provisions identify those JVs that are more likely to perform poorly.
Model (2) indicates that supermajority provisions are negatively associated with JV performance in equally controlled JVs, but are positively associated with performance in JVs controlled by one of the partners.
Supermajority indicates the presence of supermajority provisions.
Accordingly, states affected by these types of initiatives will have to consider new forms of revenue generation that will not be considered tax increases subject to supermajority provisions
, come to broad-based agreements to increase taxes that pass supermajority muster, or slash services as a way to close structural budget deficits.
923, 958 (2005) ("Although historical evidence presents no express rationale for the supermajority provisions
included in the Constitution, a more apt, albeit general, characterization is that they were intended to promote
While four studies found that classified board provisions, fair price provisions, supermajority provisions and elimination of cumulative voting provisions have insignificant wealth effects (DeAngelo & Rice, 1983; Lauterback, Malitz, & Vu, 1991; Linn & McConnell, 1983; McWilliams, 1990), several other studies found support for the entrenchment hypothesis (Agrawal & Mandelker, 1990; 1992; Bhagat & Brickley, 1984; Jarrell & Poulsen, 1987; Mahoney & Mahoney, 1993; Mahoney, Sundaramurthy, & Mahoney, 1996).
If the board is able to determine when and if the supermajority provisions will be in effect, the amendment is said to have a board-out clause (Linn & McConnell, 1983).
Ayer's beneficial ownership of such a large voting interest was material information relevant to a shareholder's voting decision whether to approve the supermajority provisions.
The supermajority provisions clearly have a negative impact on Company shares, as they severely limit the ability of shareholders to influence the management of the Company.
However, many states will have to overcome checks on the power to unilaterally increase taxes, including supermajority provisions
and in some cases, state constitutional prohibitions.
Eliminate supermajority provisions for the removal of directors; and
Eliminate supermajority provisions related to certain business combinations.