Summary of relevant studies that used the Laio and/or modified Laio stochastic models
of soil water dynamics Study Active root Vegetation type depth (cm) Laio et al.
There are already many useful models adapted in different environments, such as ray-tracing models [5-6], geometry-based deterministic models (GBDMs) , correlation-based stochastic models
(CBSMs) [8-9] and geometry-based stochastic models
incorporate discrete movements of individuals between epidemiological classes and not average rates at which individuals move between classes [13-15].
Building upon our previous stochastic models
[21-23] based on smartcard data, a stochastic modeling approach about passenger individual repositioning distance with posterior analysis is proposed in this paper, by extending our primary model about passenger longitudinal repositioning .
In order to check the relationship between the stochastic model
and its deterministic counterpart, we simulate the stochastic models
with different values of population sizes.
To model the random discharge of pollutants such as raw sewage into this designated portion of the Ganges, we suppose that these discharges occur in accordance with a stationary Poisson process (Tijms, A First Course in Stochastic Models
, 2003,) with rate or parameter a > 0.
Ewald, 2008: On modelling physical systems with stochastic models
: Diffusion versus Levy processes.
New stochastic models
for indoor wireless channels and their statistics are provided (eq.
In the next section we propose two stochastic models
: the first one is an endemic model in which each person infected from outside source contributes a random amount of infectivity to the force of infectivity (or infectivity function) which decreases at a constant rate over the time.
In addition, stochastic models
have been widely used in finance and insurance (such as [1-4]).
They limit their account stochastic models
in discrete time because the probabilistic machinery is simpler and they can discuss some of the key problems of pricing and hedging in financial derivatives right away.