If successful, as with creatinine, these efforts will then require development of appropriate reference materials, assay standardization, and expression of GFR estimating equations for standardized values
Statistical analysis: All of the DVHs original parameters were transformed to standardized values
by the Z-score formula.
Table 1 represents the three criteria along with their Standardized values
. Since the magnitude of the value of each criterion is different, for meaningful comparisons the criticality data is standardized by the following relation:
The average concentration of Cd in 2006 (0.31 mg kg-1) and 2011 (0.32 mg kg-1) exceeded the second grade standardized values
(GB 15618-1995 Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, 1995) and it was little higher in 2011.
This standard transform formula can eliminate the influence of fundamental units and unify CRI standardized values
in the range of [0, 1].
(2010b) used the combined minimum and maximum values and indicator ranges across multiple time periods to make the resulting standardized values
Based on the arithmetic mean of [[bar.z].sub.i] standardized values
was determined the order of the monitoring locations depending on the air pollution.
Whichever procedure is used to determine the film coefficients of the test specimen, these values are mathematically subtracted from the as-tested thermal transmittance (U-factor) of the specimen, and standardized film coefficients are added on to convert the as-tested transmittance, [U.sub.s'], to a standardized U-factor, [U.sub.st'] In this way, all products are evaluated under a standard set of conditions (i.e., the same film coefficients), and appear as standardized values
in the ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals.
The third and last step in the process is adjusting for differences across assets when comparing their standardized values
. Again, using the example of a house, a newer house with more updated amenities should be priced higher than a similar sized older house that needs renovation.
The component values themselves are reported along with their standardized values