The secondary dependent variable consisted of standard scores
based upon the log-transformed solitaire scores subjects obtained in each set of four games, including bonus points where applicable.
In addition, a sobering finding from longitudinal research is that when interventions have stopped at the end of first grade, students' standard scores
slid such that by the end of third grade, nearly a third of students read below the 30th percentile (Vellutino et al., 2008) or worse (60% and 46% of students who received Tier 2 and Tier 3, respectively; Gilbert et al., 2013).
For the word identification subtest, all five students made positive gains in all measures (i.e., raw scores, standard scores
, and actual age equivalent).
Additional descriptive analyses were conducted for students who scored at or below the standard score
of 96 on at least one of the four components (see Table 6).
Achievement test standard scores
were more likely to change between time 1 and time 2 than self-perceived competence scores.
Sensitivity refers to the True Positive Rate (TPR) as a measure of how well a model detects abnormal users, based on a certain standard score
. Specificity is represented by 1-FPR (False Positive Rate), which is a numerical value of whether the model selects a normal user among the normal users.
The raw score was converted to a norm-referenced standard score
. Internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha) computed with our sample's first cohort were .98 at pretest and .96 at posttest.
(1) In the present study, although the ADHD rating scale was significantly correlated with the standard score
in BOT-2 (Spearman's P=-0.55, P=0.03), it was not significantly correlated with the descriptive category.
Working memory was modeled as a latent variable indicated by verbal and visuo-spatial working memory standard scores
. Intelligence was an observed variable (Matrix Reasoning standard score
Understanding of preacademic concepts was within the "average-high average" range for both LT (standard score
: 109) and NL (standard score
: 113) participants.
Only the standard score
on the medical-surgical posttest suggested that there was no statistically significant difference (p = .08) between the two groups; the STRIPES group mean was higher than the Traditional group mean.