This means that three things tie down the futures price: the spot price
, the interest rate (borrowed money), and storage costs.
There is no evidence of significant influence on aggregate retail prices beyond the spot price
monthly natural gas spot prices
for November jumped 79% from October, to $3.01/MMBtu, but still remain 32% below the $4.44/MMBtu average reached in November 2000, according to data released by Platts, the energy information, research, consulting and market services business of The McGraw-Hill Companies (NYSE:MHP).
In December 1997, for film grade the SEA CFR spot price
was an average of US$ 560 per ton, while three months previously it was still US$ 655 per ton.
Assuming a constant convenience yield, c, interest rate, r, and volatility, [Sigma], for the rate of return on the spot commodity price, S, the stochastic process for the spot price
under the equivalent martingale measure is given by:
Despite some continued volatility, market activity has justified our investment proposition, with the spot price
increasing by 13%.
Thereafter, the on-going price will increase to 50% of the prevailing spot price
of gold and silver.
He and Holt  use an error correction model with generalized-quadratic ARCH-in-mean (to accommodate a time-varying risk premium) to find that the lumber spot price
series is not cointegrated with the lumber futures price series.
According to Meralco, spot prices
had softened as peak demand in the Luzon grid was down by around 300 megawatts in September.
(2006) show that the daily average value of the market spot price
decreases by 1 [euro]/MWh per additional 1,000 MW wind capacity.
The highest average spot price
was observed on Bonny Light oil produced in Nigeria, which amounted to $31.17 per barrel compared to $32.88 per barrel the previous week.