First, since the specific lumber commodity traded on the futures market is not traded in any spot market, most previous studies that employ lumber spot prices
use an alternate lumber commodity spot price
Lowering electricity spot prices
causes a serious distortion to the electricity market.
With LNG spot prices
fetching less and a projected oversupply of LNG, the IMF's April 2016 World Economic Outlook (WEO) revised down its forecast for average natural gas prices in 2016--a weighted average of Japanese, US and European prices--by 10.8% relative to the WEO forecast in October 2015.
15 AAC 55.171 (m) specifies how the average spot price
for ANS at
"We predict that this year the spot price
could fall as low as just 5ppl or even 4ppl.
The average spot price
is based on about 10 per cent of the nation's purchases of the super-chilled fuel.
The 1Q14 numbers were supported by the favourable water levels at dams and good pricing conditions on the spot market, as well as the base effect in tariff indexations (implying a low base for spot prices
Japan's Ministry of Economy Trade & Industry (METI) is involved in this, having recently begun issuing releases about the average spot prices
of LNG based on actual transactions made; and this has helped reduce spot prices
for supplies reaching Japan.
of natural gas and natural gas plant liquids in the United States, 2010 2013 Table 3.
However, different to the model in our paper, in those models, the spot prices
are always assumed to be a deterministic function of the demand and, moreover, the suppliers are all reliable.
In the spot instance environment, variations of spot prices
are dependent on the supply and demand of spot instances.
For sales to eastern buyers, the formula is based on the monthly average spot prices
of Dubai and Oman crudes.