such as Omithodoros do not have festoons.
In the case of most soft ticks
, the larva feeds on its host in the den or nest, then detaches and molts to produce an eight-legged nymph.
are leathery and nonscutate, without sexual dimorphism (Figure 2).
This illness is caused by [greater than or equal to] 10 Borrelia species and is transmitted to humans through the bite of soft ticks
of the genus Ornithodoros (3).
Tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a spirochetal infection transmitted to humans through the bites of soft ticks
. TBRF infection is endemic to the western United States and often acquired by patients lodging in rodent-infested rustic dwellings at elevations >2,000 feet.
of the Argasidae family (e.g., Ornithodorus moubata) are vectors for tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF) borreliae, which encompass several human-pathogenic species.
Health-care providers should consider TBRF in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients with potential exposure to soft ticks
. Penicillins or tetracyclines are the antibiotic treatment of choice, although cephalosporins, erythromycin, or chloramphenicol also can be used (4,5).
However, in recent decades, many genetically related bacteria have been found in hard and soft ticks
The soft ticks
of the genus Ornithodoros, which transmit the illness, usually feed on rodents and frequently infest rodent nesting material (2 ).
Distribution of soft ticks
and their natural infection with Borrelia in a focus of relapsing fever in Iran.
These viruses have been primarily associated with either hard or soft ticks
and have a wide geographic distribution (1-8).
Borrelia miyamotoi has been found in a variety of Ixodes ticks and is more closely related to the relapsing fever spirochetes that infect soft ticks
than to the bacteria that cause Lyme disease (2).