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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) uses therapist-led, computer-based techniques to preserve intact neuroplasticity and has been shown to improve cognition and functional status, especially when paired with vocational rehabilitation or social skills training.
Relatively few studies have evaluated the concurrent effects of social skills training on both individuals with ASD and peers with shared social deficits.
A total of 37 empirical works were analyzed (eight of which were meta-analysis) to assess the effectiveness of interventions on schizophrenia, subject to study (psychoeducation, social skills training, cognitive rehabilitation, CBT for positive symptoms, and CBT-R); of these, only 18 assessed their impact on the patients' negative symptoms.
Effects of social skills training and social milieu treatment on symptoms of schizophrenia.
The promotion of social skills training, anger management, third and fourth grade students will have an influence In examining this hypothesis, it was found that social skills training, anger management, third and fourth grade students and promote the impact of social skills groups have been examined The results of this study with the findings of previous studies, including found that the specific social skills training, anger management student will have an influence on compliance, and also assessed the impact of anger management training on social adjustment of students is significant, it is consistent.
To help generalize skills taught in social skills training, a two-part plan was implemented:
Social skills training is a treatment method that aims to discourage addictive behaviour by showing the individual how to meet the demands of life without the use of substances, and is best provided by psychologists or occupational therapists.
Teachers will benefit from the chapters on environmental planning, social skills training, and assistive technologies.
The majority of the research done with social skills training among children with ASD demonstrates effectiveness through the use of behavioral counts of actual prosocial behavior prior to, during, and following the intervention.
The six-month-old program offers an intensive therapeutic plan that includes individual and group counseling, family therapy as well as heavy emphasis on social skills training, Komp said.
The 22-week Social Skills Training Program for Children (Webster-Stratton, 2004) was administered to 6-year-old children in order to develop their social skills, comprehension of others' feelings, and skills in relation to solving social problems.
He said: "Look at what support is available, in terms of social skills training so that those that have autism and Asperger syndrome are able to read the social cues that they struggle with.