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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Five school-age children with ASD and their typically developing siblings participated in weekly social skills training for 8 weeks.
Social disinterest attitudes and group cognitive-behavioral social skills training for functional disability in schizophrenia.
Social skills training in adult psychiatric populations: a metaanalysis.
The majority of research supports that social skills training can be effective for children with ASD; however, research indicates social skills training falls short of helping children generalize their skills into a natural environment (Ozonoff & Miller, 1995; Rogers, 2000; Barry et al., 2003).
Social skills training is a treatment method that aims to discourage addictive behaviour by showing the individual how to meet the demands of life without the use of substances, and is best provided by psychologists or occupational therapists.
Teachers will benefit from the chapters on environmental planning, social skills training, and assistive technologies.
The majority of the research done with social skills training among children with ASD demonstrates effectiveness through the use of behavioral counts of actual prosocial behavior prior to, during, and following the intervention.
The aim of this study was to test the permanence or continuity of effects, of the Social Skills Training Program for Children.
Social skills training (Spence, 2003) was used to teach the client to initiate and maintain conversation.
Neurobiofeedback, like medication, works best when used in conjunction with other therapies such as nutritional counseling, improving parenting skills, individual educational plans, social skills training, and medication.
Programs designed to teach social skills to children with autism are failing to meet their goals, reveals a study by Indiana University, Bloomington, which found that outcomes for social skills training were poor overall, but programs held in normal classroom settings were more likely to result in positive changes than those held in other environments.
Despite the existence of research which suggests that social skills training interventions may improve social competence in other populations, the effectiveness of social skills training interventions for children surviving brain tumors remains understudied.