exchange

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Exchange

Stock Exchange

A place, whether physical or electronic, where stocks, bonds, and/or derivatives in listed companies are bought and sold. A stock exchange may be a private company, a non-profit, or a publicly-traded company (some exchanges have shares that trade on their own floors). A stock exchange provides a regulated place where brokers and companies may meet in order to make investments on neutral ground. The concept traces its roots back to medieval France and the Low Countries, where agricultural goods were traded for cash or debt. Most countries have a main exchange and many also have smaller, regional exchanges. A stock exchange is also called a bourse or simply an exchange.

exchange


exchange

See swap.

Exchange.

Traditionally, an exchange has been a physical location for trading securities. Trading is handled, at least in part, by an open outcry or dual auction system.

Two examples in the United States are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), which has the largest trading floor in the world, and the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE).

However, the definition is evolving. Traditional exchanges handle an increasing number of trades electronically, off the floor. Nasdaq and other totally electronic securities markets, without trading floors, have exchange status.

As a result, the terms exchange and market are being used interchangeably to mean any environment in which listed products are traded.

The term exchange also refers to the act of moving assets from one fund to another in the same fund family or from one variable annuity subaccount to another offered through the same contract.

exchange

see MARKET, BARTER.

exchange

  1. 1the transfer of the right to own or use goods and services. Exchange is necessary in specialized economies (see SPECIALIZATION). In simpler specialized economies, exchange can take the form of BARTER. In more complex specialized economies exchange is undertaken through MARKETS, where the right to own or use goods and services is bought and sold. See TRANSACTION.
  2. the means of financing the purchase of goods and services in a market. See MONEY, FOREIGN EXCHANGE.

exchange

Parties may exchange like-kind properties and not pay any income taxes at the time of the exchange but, instead, defer them until the later sale of the exchanged property. See 1031 exchange.

Exchange

A transfer of property for other property or services. Some exchanges produce currently taxable income while others can be structured so as to defer any tax liability.
References in periodicals archive ?
Similar observations on the DNA damaging properties of synthetic steroids as is evident from chromosomal damage, induction of sister chromatid exchanges [24,16,3,18] have also been reported earlier.
Role of metabolism and DNA adduct formation in the induction of sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes by diethylstilbestrol.
Table 1: Outcome of studies comparing sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and buccal cells of healthy individuals and patients on maintenance hemodialysis1.
Variability in chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and mitogen-induced blastogenesis in peripheral lymphocytes from control individuals.
Modulation of mitomycin C-induced sister chromatid exchanges and cell cycle delay by buthionine sulfoximine and reduced glutathione in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo.
The present results showed a significant increase in the mean frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in traffic policemen when compared to the controls, similar to the earlier studies (18-22) which reported a significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in traffic policemen.
Fluoxymeste rone was reported to induce chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes and also increase frequencies of micronuclei and SCEs in bone marrow cells of mice.
Only one toxic end point, sister chromatid exchanges in vitro, which may indicate mutagenicity, was significantly higher in the HPV chemical set as compared to the reference set.
SAR models of the ability to induce error-prone DNA repair in Escherichia coli (SOS Chromotest; EBPI, Brampton, Ontario, Canada) (27,28), mutations in cultured mouse lymphoma cells (29), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (30), and unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary rat hepatocytes (31) have been described previously, as have models of the potentials for inducing SCEs (32) and micronuclei in vivo (33).
An early study indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) could prevent arsenic (As)-induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in cultured human lymphocytes (1).
Using Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells, phenol induced morphologic transformations, gene mutations at two loci (both ouabain-resistant and 6-thioguanine-resistant mutant frequencies were increased), chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and unscheduled DNA synthesis (63).