exchange

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Exchange

Stock Exchange

A place, whether physical or electronic, where stocks, bonds, and/or derivatives in listed companies are bought and sold. A stock exchange may be a private company, a non-profit, or a publicly-traded company (some exchanges have shares that trade on their own floors). A stock exchange provides a regulated place where brokers and companies may meet in order to make investments on neutral ground. The concept traces its roots back to medieval France and the Low Countries, where agricultural goods were traded for cash or debt. Most countries have a main exchange and many also have smaller, regional exchanges. A stock exchange is also called a bourse or simply an exchange.

exchange


exchange

See swap.

Exchange.

Traditionally, an exchange has been a physical location for trading securities. Trading is handled, at least in part, by an open outcry or dual auction system.

Two examples in the United States are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), which has the largest trading floor in the world, and the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE).

However, the definition is evolving. Traditional exchanges handle an increasing number of trades electronically, off the floor. Nasdaq and other totally electronic securities markets, without trading floors, have exchange status.

As a result, the terms exchange and market are being used interchangeably to mean any environment in which listed products are traded.

The term exchange also refers to the act of moving assets from one fund to another in the same fund family or from one variable annuity subaccount to another offered through the same contract.

exchange

see MARKET, BARTER.

exchange

  1. 1the transfer of the right to own or use goods and services. Exchange is necessary in specialized economies (see SPECIALIZATION). In simpler specialized economies, exchange can take the form of BARTER. In more complex specialized economies exchange is undertaken through MARKETS, where the right to own or use goods and services is bought and sold. See TRANSACTION.
  2. the means of financing the purchase of goods and services in a market. See MONEY, FOREIGN EXCHANGE.

exchange

Parties may exchange like-kind properties and not pay any income taxes at the time of the exchange but, instead, defer them until the later sale of the exchanged property. See 1031 exchange.

Exchange

A transfer of property for other property or services. Some exchanges produce currently taxable income while others can be structured so as to defer any tax liability.
References in periodicals archive ?
German, "A manyfold increase in sister chromatid exchanges in Bloom's syndrome lymphocytes," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Hacihanefio glu, "The effect of glutathione S-transferase M1 genotype on benzo[alpha] pyrene-induced sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes," Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, vol.
Chamorro, "Induction of sister chromatid exchanges by 2,4dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in somatic and germ cells of mice exposed in vivo," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol.
A significant decrease in the sister chromatid exchanges per cell was observed when norethynodrel (60 mg/ml) was treated with the different dosages of ascorbic acid i.e.
Chromosome Aber rations, Micronuclei , Aneuploidy, Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Cancer Risk Assessment.
Evaluations have also been performed for lymphocyte sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN), but thus far these biomarkers have not been shown to predict cancer (1,2).
Sister chromatid exchanges and structural chromosome aberrations in relation to smoking in 91 individuals.
Sister chromatid exchanges indicate gene toxicity [4, 5].
The researchers looked at three standard indicators of chromosomal damage: structural chromosomal aberrations (breaks in chromosomes), micronuclei (small nuclei consisting of chromosome fragments produced by breakage or whole chromosomes lost from the main nucleus after the cell divides), and sister chromatid exchanges (exchanges of genetic material between a pair of identical chromosomes).
Arsenical compounds are potent clastogens in many cell types inducing chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), cell cycle arrest, mitosis disturbance, aneuploidy, cytoskeleton disruption, apoptosis, and chromosomal loss in both human and rodent cells in culture.
They also showed a 4.3-fold increase in the mean number of sister chromatid exchanges (the number of crossover events in a chromosome pair), from 6.1 to 26.3, and a 2.4-fold increase in micronuclei frequencies per 1,000 cells, from 3.6 to 8.5.