The total harmonic distortion percentages of the 1 kHz sine waves were measured with a stand-alone FFT analyzer that produced a display that reflects the parameters of frequency on the horizontal axis and amplitude on the vertical axis.
Figure 1a is a waveform display of a 1.00 kilohertz (kHz) sine wave with 5.0 milliseconds of time on the horizontal axis and amplitude on the vertical axis.
The term that describes how a sine wave
differential signal is affected by an interconnect when it exits is the differential insertion loss, sometimes referred to by its S-parameter designation, SDD21.
If a sine wave voltage is applied across a resistor, the current will also be a sine wave.
A sine wave voltage waveform leads to a cosine current waveform.
For example, to measure a 1-kHz sine wave would require two samples with a spacing of 250 [micro]s.
means that sampling with a 90 [degrees] offset will give you the sine and cosine components of the sine wave. Hence the correct amplitude A (using the circle identity) is:
There is evidence the results may be somewhat different when sine waves at several frequencies are applied simultaneously, as happens in the real world.
Currently the standard test procedure is to measure the stiffness for sine wave input at a regular series of frequencies, for example every 10 hz from 0 hz to 200 hz.
The solution is to borrow an approach used in the RF world: that is, to use the interactions of precision sine wave
signals with the connector to characterize its performance.
They did this by looking at paleomagnetic studies of the rocks to determine the direction of the past field, and by using the plane along which the stromatolitic sine waves
grew to define the past north-south plane of the earth and its spin axis.
The return loss is a measure of the ratio of the reflected voltage amplitude of each sine wave
to the amplitude that is incident to the front of the interconnect.