(See, however, Staddon & Cerutti, 2003, for an alternative interpretation of signal effects in chained schedules.) However, response-cue separation in chained reinforcement schedules is an experimental manipulation that appears in a number of studies with different theoretical interests.
Several studies have suggested that signal effects on operant behavior are strongly determined by interreinforcer interval (Schaal, Odum, & Shahan, 2000; Schaal, Schuh, & Branch, 1992).
The present study, as well as those preceding it, suggests that interreinforcer interval could have an important role in modulating signal effects when the visual or auditory cues are separated from the response selected for reinforcement.
Local response rates also suggest that signal effects on behavior may be highly varied (especially in the response-acquisition study), producing notable response-enhancing effects in Subject G5 and response-inhibiting effects in Subject G9.
The conditional frequency analysis obtained imitation, similar reaction, and transmission of signal effects
. Finally, the analysis on the time intervals between events obtained imitation effects in small transactions with a high trading frequency, negative signal after a large sell and similar reactions, and splitting in large trades with the high trading frequency.