A fourth concept, shirka
, has also been suggested by some scholars.
Bruning, Dials, & Shirka
, 2008; Haigh, 2014; Luo & Jiang, 2012; Romenti, Murtarelli, & Valentini, 2014), if dialogue is something different from just symmetrically engaging, is dialogue even possible via social media?
Most interestingly, almost all current banking product structures including murabaha, tawarruq, ijara, salam, istisna, wakala, kifalah, shirka
, modariba, etc.
Furthermore, the electoral process is a public demand," said Shirka
in a Baghdad press conference.
2003; Rosenthal & Schreiner, 2000; Shirka
, 2000; Sparling, Snow, & Beavers, 1999; Spencer, 2002).
, in Kindaichi Kyonosuke, Ainu jojishi yukara shu VIII (Tokyo, Sanseido, 1968), p.
Second, dialogue has been positioned as an ideal form of communication for public relations, often because of its putative ethical superiority (Botan, 1997; Bruning, Dials, & Shirka
, 2008; Pearson, 1989a; Theunissen, 2014).
It is assumed to guide practitioners' communication, influence codes, and allow judgments (Bruning, Dials, & Shirka
, 2008; Huang & Yang, 2015; Kent & Taylor, 2002).
divided the risks, which were always great in long-distance trade, especially a trade that went over land or along coasts and was subject to brigands or bad weather.