This appears to avoid social desirability bias; even so, there is no reason to think that we have avoided a self-selection
bias is particularly concerning when the selection effect influences the responses collected; thereby reducing the generalizability of the results of the study (relatedly see Chandler, Paolacci, Peer, Mueller, & Ratliff, 2015).
McNinch et al state "In at-risk populations, the keys to encouraging an optimal student response to literature and reading are self-selection
and the use of extrinsic motivators.
"(Laxatives) should not be available for self-selection
from pharmacy shelves or online stores and purchases should only be made following consultation with the pharmacist," Johns said.
The data were generated 'independent of any study, without recourse to questionnaires or personal logging through diaries or wearable sensors, and without the associated limitations (cost, human-power, etc.) and biases (recall, inclusion, self-selection
, etc.),' he noted.
The switch to OTC status was supported by postmarketing safety data; consumer studies data, which included a label comprehension study, a self-selection
study, and an "actual use" study; and data from a "maximal use" study submitted by the manufacturer.
In the Rothschild-Stiglitz equilibrium, the contracts (specifying for both types of individuals a pair of premium and insurance coverage associated to each self-insurance effort) offered at Stage 2 act as a self-selection
He discusses the impact of open borders and productivity spillovers, as well as the social capital of immigrants; the evolution of immigration policy in the US; factors involved in the self-selection
of immigrants; whether their economic well-being improves over time; what happens to their descendants; their impact on the labor market; economic benefits; the fiscal impact; and lessons learned from the evidence.
At the end of follow-up, 74 percent of the prepackaged group achieved a five percent weight loss, compared with 53 percent of the self-selection
Under FCPF governance mechanism, CSOs have the privilege of running self-selection
process to elect their four regional representatives from across world i.e.
An objective was set at the beginning of this research project to observe how reading strategies and self-selection
worked to change students' negative perceptions of reading as well as how such reading strategies and self-selection
could be used to promote engagement and motivation to enrich the literacy-building experience.