, "Widow(er) poverty and out-of-pocket medical expenditures near the end of life," Journal of Gerontology, May 2005, pp.
In contrast, worker-based definitions tend to focus on jobs that command below a certain wage and human capital characteristics such as low education and skills (Applebaum, Bernhardt, and Murnane 2003; Blank Danziger and Schoeni
2006; Boushey, Fremstad, Gragg, and Waller 2007; Carnavale and Rose 2001; Congressional Budget Office 2007; Kaye and Nightingale 2000; U.
2005), McGarry and Schoeni
(2001), and Costa (1999), who find fairly consistent evidence that measures of income and wealth, in part, explain the living decisions of the elderly.
, "Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrant Women in the United States: 1970 to 1990," International Migration Review, vol.
Studying Health Retirement Survey data, Haider, Jacknowitz, and Schoeni
(2003) found that eligibility for food stamps increased with age but that take-up rates decreased.
1997; Cox and Jappelli, 1990; Hochguertel and Ohlsson, 2009; Kazianga, 2006; McGarry and Schoeni
, 1995; McGarry, 2000).
The usual way to correct the potential endogeneity of education is to introduce into the regression biographical variables such as the educational attainment of the parents (Lam and Schoeni
This approach follows directly from Reville (1999), Reville and Schoeni
(2001), Boden and Galizzi (2002), and a number of related RAND studies, so we discuss it only briefly.
The midfielder bent his right-footed shot around the Crew defensive wall and past goalkeeper Kenny Schoeni
As part of Hong Kong's annual art charity event ArtWalk 2009, the Schoeni
Gallery, which normally deals with high-end Chinese contemporary works, is devoting its space to a rusty iron cage or "cage home".
To determine the effect of women's work on income distribution, many researches have also used counterfactual distributions (Betson and van der Gaag, 1984; Cancian and Schoeni
, 1998; Burtless, 1999; Cancian and Reed, 1999; Reed and Cancian, 2001; Del Boca and Pasqua, 2003; Amin, 2003; Amin and DaVanzo, 2004): inequality is measured under different assumption on women's employment rates or computed on total household income less women's earnings.
Higher parental education and income have been shown to be related to greater likelihood of offspring pursuing higher education and making a successful transition to adulthood (Sandefur, Eggerling-Boeck, & Park, 2005); Osgood, Ruth, Eccles, Jacobs, & Barber, 2005; Schoeni
& Ross, 2005).