Lelgemann gives the ancient stadion = 600 feet and reports the stadion at Olympia at 192.27 meters which he believes is based on the Remen or old Egyptian trade cubit derived from the Egyptian royal cubit (523.75 mm) and old trade cubit = 448.9 mm.
He fixes the date of the royal cubit at about 4000 BCE.
The Histories of Herodotus [23, page 21] described the walls surrounding the city of Babylon as "fifty royal cubits wide and two hundred high (the royal cubit is three inches longer than the ordinary cubit)" An accompanying note to the text provides the information given in parentheses, and the end note reports these values as "exceedingly high" raising questions about the height of these walls which would be well over three-hundred feet high if the royal cubit of 20 inches is implied, or 100 meters if the royal cubit is 50 cm.
The Babylonian cubit is 15/16 of the royal cubit making 160 Babylonian trade cubits [approximately equal to] 144 Babylonian cubits [approximately equal to] 135 Egyptian royal cubits.
Common scale Ezekiel's scale Measure Millimeters Inches Millimeters Inches Cubit 444.25 1749 518.29 20.405 Span 222.12 8.745 259.14 10.202 Handbreadth 74.04 2.91 74.04 2.91 Finger 18.51 0.72 18.51 0.72 TABLE 3 Great Pyramid at Gizeh, Khufu 20.620 [+ or -] -005 Second Khafra 20.64 [+ or -] -03 Granite temple 20.68 [+ or -] -02 Third Pyramid Menkaura 20.71 [+ or -] .02 Peribolus walls 20.69 [+ or -] -02 Great Pyramid of Dahshur (?) 20.58 [+ or -] -02 Pyramid at Sakkara Pepi 20.51 [+ or -] -02 Fourth to sixth dynasty, mean of all 20.63 [+ or -] -02 TABLE 4 Egyptian common cubit 18.24 inches Egyptian royal cubit 20.64 inches Great Assyrian cubit 25.26 inches Beladi cubit 21.88 inches Black cubit 20.28 inches TABLE 5: Middle East names and dimensions for the cubit and related measures.
The royal cubit
, which is the ancient Egyptian unit of measurement used in the construction of the pyramid, was between 52.3 and 52.5 cm (20.6 to 20.64 inches) in length, and was subdivided into seven palms of four digits (four fingers) each, making it a 28-part measure.