Odaka (1986) described Japanese management by listing its features and characteristics; he wrote that Japanese-style management includes lifelong employment, seniority-based hierarchy, employment of the total person, standardized training for all employees, respect for interpersonal harmony, the ringi system
, omikoshi management, collective responsibility, and participative management.
This most often is based on the ringi system
, a process of decision making used by most Japanese firms in which consent of all concerned individuals is obtained prior to implementation by circulating a proposal throughout the organization.
The effectiveness of the ringi system
is based on Japn's cultural foundation.
Under the ringi system
, [i]f the decision turns out to be wrong, responsibility falls on the entire corporation and no one individual will be at fault.
This collective method, the ringi system
, is reported to be used in approximately 90 percent of the decisions made at the lower and middle management levels.
Japanese managers also view their units as more effective in comparison to American managers because probably open communication and ringi system
in Japan, in particular, improve operations.
163) states: "Japanese have extended the ringi system
of decision making to international operations with virtually no alterations.