Bias

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Bias

1. In statistics, a circumstance leading to inaccurate results because of conscious or unconscious manipulation of data. Bias is anything that reduces the randomness of the sample being tested.

2. Anything that affects a decision other than facts. For example, a company may be disinclined to expand into an area of town because it is perceived as dangerous, whether or not it actually is. Bias is thought to reduce efficiency. See also: Behavioral economics.
References in periodicals archive ?
On the other hand, due to the lower diffusion of electron carries under reverse bias when inductor polarity changes at ([+ or -]) (see Figure 9(b)), both conduction regimes are negligible and exhaustion of majority carries arises.
Caption: Figure 8: Equivalent circuit diagram for a p-n junction with the intermediate layer of high resistance, constructed on the basis of an equivalent circuit pin diode (a) [49] and a simplified scheme for direct (forward bias) and inverse (reverse bias) connection (b).
HTM [V.sub.oc] (V) [(n-BuO).sub.4]ZnPc Forward bias 0.896 [+ or -] 0.009 Reverse bias 0.928 [+ or -] 0.04 Spiro-OMeTAD Forward bias 0.903 [+ or -] 0.02 Reverse bias 0.928 [+ or -] 0.04 HTM [J.sub.sc] (mA/[cm.sup.2]) [(n-BuO).sub.4]ZnPc Forward bias 12.1 [+ or -] 1.2 Reverse bias 14.5 [+ or -] 1.9 Spiro-OMeTAD Forward bias 13.6 [+ or -] 0.9 Reverse bias 14.5 [+ or -] 1.9 HTM FF (%) [(n-BuO).sub.4]ZnPc Forward bias 57.0 [+ or -] 3.1 Reverse bias 61.8 [+ or -] 2.6 Spiro-OMeTAD Forward bias 55.2 [+ or -] 4.0 Reverse bias 61.8 [+ or -] 2.6 HTM PCE (%) [(n-BuO).sub.4]ZnPc Forward bias 6.06% [+ or -] 0.74 Reverse bias 9.00% [+ or -] 0.21 Spiro-OMeTAD Forward bias 6.75% [+ or -] 0.19 Reverse bias 8.61% [+ or -] 0.60 Table 4: Calculated synthesis cost for 1 g of [(n-BuO).sub.4]ZnPc.
Caption: FIGURE 4: J-V plots for forward (a) and reverse bias (b) conditions.
These values lie in the range between [C.sub.sc] = 0.16 pF corresponding to the maximum reverse bias of 20 V and [C.sub.oc] = 2.25 pF corresponding to a dc bias of 0 V.
I attempted to run such an experiment but found an unusual reverse bias against the white defendant.
We investigated the effect of the polymer and the crosslinker concentration on the current for reverse bias. It was observed that the decreasing rate of the current becomes more pronounced when both the concentrations of the polymer and the crosslinker are increased.
Conversely, the PN diodes as displayed in Figure 3(b) are off in the reverse bias region in spite of the PN junctions of the conventional diode which are forward biased in this region.
Under external reverse bias, depletion region of the device extends and as a result, more incident photons will contribute to the electron-hole pairs generation that takes place in the depletion region.
It has low forward resistance and low capacitance at zero volt reverse bias. The PIN diode has current controlled RF resistor, which decreases as the forward current increases.
In reverse bias, [F.sub.r] values, for which [P.sub.t] is maximum, are measured at 1.07 GHz and 2.14 GHz.
[r.sub.sh] also can be found by using the slope of a PV cell's reverse bias I-V curve (Figure 3).