Another factor that seems to contribute to the effect of employing a zero contingency in respondent conditioning is contextual conditioning.
Tonneau, for example, has proposed that reinforcement could play a role in maintaining the transfer of functions, which occurs by means of respondent conditioning (2001a, p.
Further, human research in respondent conditioning
has shown that under certain circumstances, second order conditioning effects are observed even when both CSs (e.g., names of foods) are presented simultaneously (and not successively) in the second phase of the procedure; that is, when the US (e.g., an illness) is absent (Karazinov and Boakes 2007).
A continuous increase in synaptic efficacy between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons seems not to be associated with both operant and respondent conditioning
, such as the biobehavioral model has predicted.
Covert verbal responses, i.e., exclamations of negative emotions, e.g., "Damn, I just spilled all over my pants!" initially established through respondent conditioning, function as discriminative stimuli which influence the occurrence of other behavior, for example, performance of motor responses and self-observation.
Conditioned suppression and the effects of respondent conditioning on operant behavior.
Much remains, however, to be learned about the parameters within which respondent conditioning procedures will operate.
These failures to produce third-order, respondent conditioning are interesting because such conditioning has been demonstrated in experiments in which nonverbal stimuli are used (see Hall, 1986).
Respondent conditioning of general autonomic arousal was measured as Skin Resistance Responses (SRRs) on a Grass(R) polygraph (Model 7P1), which supplied a 10-microampere constant current through two (1 [cm.sup.2]) rim-sealed silver metal electrodes.
Approximately 1 min after leaving the experimental room, the experimenter began relaying respondent conditioning trials to the subject's television monitor.
Not only did respondent conditioning
receive little attention by radical behaviorists, it was also ascribed a qualitatively different character.
The term semantic conditioning, first coined by Razran (1939), refers to the application of respondent conditioning
principles to language, and specifically, the acquisition of meaning and language functions (see also Mowrer, 1954; Osgood, 1969).