1997) propose about how, in respondent conditioning
arrangements, organisms are always behaving while stimuli are paired, and in operant conditioning arrangements, certain stimuli are inevitably paired with the reinforcer.
While respondent conditioning
seems to play a role in developing taste aversions, sexual arousal, and phobias, little is known about what role it plays in language development and everyday language behavior.
However, in both operant and respondent conditioning, the changes typically targeted for observation and measurement are those relative to behavior with respect to a biologically significant stimulus of which organisms are deprived.
Further, human research in respondent conditioning has shown that under certain circumstances, second order conditioning effects are observed even when both CSs (e.
The respondent conditioning
phase consisted of 10 presentations to each of a CS+ and CS- in a quasi-random order with random inter-trial intervals of 10-40 seconds.
Respondent conditioning procedures using verbal stimuli similar to those outlined above have also been used to modify the "maladaptive" associative histories of particular clinical populations.
Much remains, however, to be learned about the parameters within which respondent conditioning procedures will operate.
initially established through respondent conditioning, function as discriminative stimuli which influence the occurrence of other behavior, for example, performance of motor responses and self-observation.
Conditioned suppression and the effects of respondent conditioning on operant behavior.
of general autonomic arousal was measured as Skin Resistance Responses (SRRs) on a Grass(R) polygraph (Model 7P1), which supplied a 10-microampere constant current through two (1 [cm.
Not only did respondent conditioning
receive little attention by radical behaviorists, it was also ascribed a qualitatively different character.
The term semantic conditioning, first coined by Razran (1939), refers to the application of respondent conditioning
principles to language, and specifically, the acquisition of meaning and language functions (see also Mowrer, 1954; Osgood, 1969).