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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
* Stop your resistance training if you feel sharp joint or muscle pain or any chest pain, shortness of breath or lightheadedness.
It is concluded that the impact of resistance training from pre to posttest had shown significant performance among the underweight students with regard to the selected fitness variables i.e.
Effects of resistance training can also be seen on health-related quality of life specially in older subjects (American College of Sports Medicine, 2013; Damush and Damush, 1999; Vieira et al., 2012).
It should be noted that the CG members were resistance training practitioners, however, they remained physically inactive during the 8 weeks of research.
Apart from the heart and blood vessels, resistance training builds muscle throughout the body, and this can help you burn fat.
Resistance training did not decrease the MSTN expression between the trained groups and the IS group, although there are other studies that have demonstrated the decrease in MSTN after resistance training (13,20,25,26).
The same idea with single-bout outcomes was found also on long term strength training, where effects of resistance training on anxiety are moderated by exercise intensity, with the most important decrease observed at low-to-moderate intensities.
Prior to their completing the resistance training survey items, the participants were provided the following definition of resistance/ strength training: Strength training is also called weight training or resistance training, and involves challenging the muscles against a resistance (such as a dumbbell or physical-activity band), to build muscle strength and endurance.
Dispelling the Myths of Resistance Training for the Pediatric Dancer
Senior Fitness is a resistance training program for the elderly so that they can enjoy life more.
* Burn Fat and Get Fit- Fit Body Boot Camp incorporates suspension trainers designed to combine core strengthening and body toning, "joint friendly" triple bonded foam flooring, battling ropes to maximize fat burn and boost metabolism, and resistance training to firm, tone, tighten and sculpt the entire body all in under one hour - This is the Fit Body Boot Camp Unstoppable Fitness Formula!
However, recently findings reported that an acute concurrent resistance and endurance training promoted greater molecular anabolic response than resistance training alone [12].

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