Anecdotal accounts suggest payment associations are moving to improve the on-chip cryptographic features of these cards, including challenge-response protocols, to further frustrate replay attacks
The former needs a continuous connection from the client-side to the server-side, and the replay attack
can be prevented by means of continuous server-side verification.
8 shows the effect of replay attack
on network energy when five attackers replay the packets at the rate of 10 to 50 copies per second.
Message 9: RSU sends RR for CA, containing Serial Number and Time to avoid replay attack
and Signature to avoid fabrication, Revocation Reason to state what is the reason for revocation, and sen id to know which vehicle is the problematic one and message code to know what is the message category; the message is encrypted with PK of CA.
Based on symmetric key cryptography and one way hash function, Song  suggested an efficient smart card authentication scheme and claimed that the scheme is secure against impersonation attack, parallel session attack, replay attack
and modification attack.
s Lee-Chiu Hwang-Li \ scheme  scheme  scheme  Without X O O verification table Choose O O X password at will Change O O X password at will Resist DoS X O O attack (Denial of Service) Resist X O O replay attack
Resist O O O guessing attack Resist X O O man-in-the- middle attack Lu-Cao Proposed \ scheme  scheme Without O O verification table Choose X O password at will Change X O password at will Resist DoS O O attack (Denial of Service) Resist O O replay attack
Resist O O guessing attack Resist O O man-in-the- middle attack Table 2.
To prevent replay attacks
, we add a timestamp to the request to set a time limitation.
This verification process prevents the replay attacks
11] have proposed a secure authentication scheme to enable the session initiation protocol to withstand server spoofing, off-line password guessing attacks and replay attacks
, but their scheme still keeps the password table, leaving room for security problems arising from it .
s protocol would suffer from the replay attack
in the initial phase.
They claimed that their scheme is secure against ID theft, replay attack
, forgery attack, guessing attack, insider attack and stolen verifier attack.
Compared with other data aggregation schemes, the proposed scheme has two contributions: 1) The proposed scheme not only resists many well know attacks, such as external attack, internal attack, replay attack
, impersonation attack and modification attack, but also it is robust against the new HDA attack.