diff] changes during the historical simulations for various CMIP5 models using rolling 30-yr reference periods.
This is partly because optimal reference periods are typically much longer, as the variability is larger relative to forced changes (see appendix D).
For other variables, such as precipitation, the optimal reference periods are likely to be much longer, as the variability is large relative to the changes.
Different length reference periods correspond to tubes of different lengths, with longer tubes required to have wider diameters.
The black dashed lines show the range of possible futures for a larger set of time series demonstrating that the uncertainty shrinks for later reference periods (as discussed later in Fig.
The results of three five-year reference periods and three ten-year reference periods are shown in Table 3.
For five of the six reference periods the difference is statistically significant with a market capitalization loss for the stock buyback portfolio (SBP) and a market capitalization gain for all other stocks.
The market capitalization change (from the beginning to the end of the reference period) for the large capitalization stock buyback portfolio (MCDSBP) stocks in Panel A is negative for all reference periods except the 2003 to 2012 reference period.
The evidence shows market capitalization declines for most of the reference periods for the stock buyback portfolio relative to the portfolio of all other stocks.
One-year reference period in certain sectors (processing industry, tourism) established in law whereas it is only authorised under collective agreements.
The reference period can be raised under legislation to 12 months.
In this analysis, a FFS beneficiary is defined as being enrolled in Part A and/or Part B with a coverage type code equal to 9 (FFS coverage) for at least one month of the 12-month reference period