The unitized risk values for the real rate of return
for the FTSE Index are indicated on the basis of data in Figure 4 and Table 3.
50% Real rate of return
on equity 10% Inflation rate 2.
To a large extent, the difference in these three factors ultimately boils down to the difference in the estimates of real rate of return
, in addition to the fact that underlying data used by the CPP and Diewert-Yu are different in many aspects.
where: p--assumed pre-tax real rate of return
, r--real rate of return
government issues both kinds, so looking at the difference between the interest rate on nominal treasury bonds and TIPS (Treasury Inflation Protected Securities), which are protected against inflation and thus offer a real rate of return
, provides an estimate of expected inflation, at least among the bond-buying public.
The second paper, which is more relevant to our present study, sought to analyze a stable long-term relationship between real consumption and the term spread between 3-month and 10-year yields, through a clever construction of a real rate of return
of assets borrowed from Keeler (2006).
During that period consumer prices grew by 17% - providing investors with a significant real rate of return
Suppose we also assume that (i) money and capital pay either the same real rate of return
or closely related real rates of return (1) and (ii) the real return on money is the negative of the net inflation rate [pi].
To accomplish the goal of achieving a real rate of return
on investments after taxes and inflation are considered, history proves that can only be supplied by owning hard assets.
If income has grown by a real rate of return
above inflation, savings in the later years may ramp up even further.
For examining this, they estimated nominal return on equity by using reserve Bank of India for share prices and equity yield and real rate of return
is calculated by whole sale index as well as consumer price index for the time period of 1953-1987.