For example, and with respect to the real balance effect
, also called the real wealth effect, the money wealth effect, and the Pigou effect, aggregate demand will be more elastic for any given change in the price level the more responsive is consumption spending to the resulting change in real wealth, ceteris paribus.
When the real balance effect
of money growth is weakly dominated by the consumption effect and some conditions are satisfied, higher monetary growth lowers steady state capital, labor, real balances, consumption, and welfare.
"The Liquidity Trap, the Real Balance Effect, and the Friedman Rule." mimeo, Boston College, 2004.
(2.) Following Pigou and Patinkin, Ireland (2004) calls it the "real balance effect." If the government is allowed to make type-specific transfers, then the Friedman rule will again be optimal, as shown by Gahvari (1988).
Pigou later dismissed the "Pigou effect" or "real balance effect
" as an academic exercise, because a government would not employ a downward wage-price spiral as a means of increasing the real money supply.
This proportional relationship was, he believed, established through the operation of a real balance effect. In his view, cashholders had a well-developed demand for a constant stock of real cash balances.
For Wicksell, then, the classical quantity theory implied money stock and price level proportionality achieved through real balance effects.
He includes a real balance effect in his story, and his interest rate theory is a loanable-funds theory, not a liquidity preference theory.
Many economists insist that the real balance effect holds only for outside money [Gurley and Shaw, 1960].
In particular, I derive a real balance effect
that explicitly enters the IS relation within an optimizing general equilibrium framework of the new Keynesian type.
This trade balance equation can be derived from a two-country Mundell-Fleming type model that includes the real balance effect
and the interest rate in the expenditure function.(6) TB = f(Y, Y(*), G, G(*), M, M(*), R, r, r(*), ED) (1) plus or minus plus or minus minus plus minus plus plus plus or minus plu s or minus minus
The transmission mechanism in such an economy will include both interest rate and real balance effects
. Its money stock and price level are ultimately tethered to the monetary base made available by monetary authorities.