However, we did not fully examine the other side of this result, which is bias caused by assuming between-set random variation
in length effects when in fact none exists.
Rosenberg's insistence on random variation
as the sole factor of variability might fit in well with the now discredited central dogma of molecular biology, which says that interaction between the genetic material in the nucleus and the outer cellular environment is strictly one way.
This is because bias can be eliminated, but random variation
can only be reduced.
The problem with statistically significant difference (a difference that is greater than chance or normal random variation
in the data) is that it may not actually be that meaningful in clinical practice.
Larger samples help us cut through the random variations
to detect more effectively the assignable causes of variation.
Such students typically interpret normal, random variations
as mistakes and conclude that either 1) they aren't any good at science or 2) the experiment is wrong.
He makes the case that a science of intelligent design can incorporate Darwinian mechanisms of natural selection and random variation
and thus result in a conceptually more powerful scientific theory.
More realistic is Stephen Jay Gould's consciousness of contingency, random variation
, and probabilistic reasoning.
The limitation of the electromyographic monitor was that there was found to be a random variation
in the pattern of the muscle fibres' response to stimulation, leading to an unacceptable variation in the EMG output unless invasive electrodes were placed in the muscle (which was acceptable in the animal laboratory for research work).
The issue for management is whether this variation of results from established targets is a "signal" that something special has occurred, or whether the variation present is simply due to the "noise" or random variation
inherent in every process.
I couldn't use it to specify different errors in different groups or random variation
in slopes (random numeric effects).
Evolution in the sense of common ancestry might be true, but evolution in the neo-Darwinian sense--an unguided, unplanned process of random variation
and natural selection--is not.