AIC in the Copperbelt was the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church, whose parent church was founded in Philadelphia in 1787 by black Americans protesting segregation within Methodism in the United States.
The vision of the Rant as a proto-nationalist
is a false one; as Roy notes, only "death turned Lakshmi Bat into a martyr" (p.
The existence of a nationalist or proto-nationalist
political tradition means little in and of itself in the absence of broad-based popular support: as D.
From this vantage point, Clotelle's devotion to the freedmen seems informed by the same proto-nationalist
self-help philosophy that would dominate the post-Reconstruction period.
The antecedents of African political organisation in post-conquest Southern Rhodesia were elitist proto-nationalist
movements which took the form of mutual-aid, self-help and ethnic-cultural organisations during the interwar years.
The defeat of the Mongol invasions in 1257-1288 did not seal a proto-nationalist
discourse but rather led to famine and hardships that resulted in the enslavement of large rural groups.
PLANS to boost collaboration between the four Welsh police forces were last night branded "proto-nationalist
" by a North Wales MP.