From this vantage point, Clotelle's devotion to the freedmen seems informed by the same proto-nationalist
self-help philosophy that would dominate the post-Reconstruction period.
The antecedents of African political organisation in post-conquest Southern Rhodesia were elitist proto-nationalist
movements which took the form of mutual-aid, self-help and ethnic-cultural organisations during the interwar years.
In this respect, vernacular theatre was a proto-nationalist
media that preceded even the ilustrados' engagement with the promise of the foreign.
The creole directorate of the loose independence movement, on the other hand, struggled toward a proto-nationalist
vision of an autonomous nation-state in which active political citizenship would be limited to a white native elite and a penumbra of ethnically mixed secondary players.
In the aftermath of their defeat, the Junker joined in an odd underground alliance with German liberals and proto-nationalists
to combat French hegemony.