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a person with a recognized set of skills and knowledge which qualifies them to practise a certain occupation. Usually this knowledge is gained from lengthy TRAINING and is certified by examination, often by a professional association. This pattern of entry to an occupation is similar to that of apprenticeships; however, the professions are usually understood to be those occupations which are located at the top of the occupational structure in terms of status, for example doctors, architects, lawyers etc. In so far as professional associations (for example the Law Society) stipulate the form and content of training and examination, they define the nature of the job tasks and the work standards that should be achieved and they control entry into the profession. Once individuals have been admitted to the profession it is customary in most instances for them to join the association. Professional associations are similar to craft unions (see TRADE UNION) in that they seek to maintain high incomes for their members by restricting entry to these occupations. Some associations (especially those governing public-sector professionals) are registered as trade unions and have become more similar to other unions in recent years, in that they have felt forced to mount industrial action or publicity campaigns to influence government and management policy decisions.

The notion of professionalism, i.e. that professional workers are special by virtue of their knowledge, has been much criticized in recent years. Critics have claimed that it is used to advance sectional interests, for example high income levels, and to prevent regulation by government or employers of the way tasks are carried out. Attempts have been made to weaken the power of certain professions; for instance, the recent trend in the UK Health Service for the allocation of resources to be determined on grounds of efficiency and effectiveness by management teams rather than on medical grounds as defined by doctors and consultants.

MANAGEMENT per se has generally not been viewed as a profession in the UK because there has been little agreement on the skills and knowledge which are integral to management, and no professional body has been able to enforce mini-mum standards. However, numerous associations concerned with particular aspects of management, for example the INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, have identified training requirements and hold examinations in an attempt to achieve professional status. Recently the MANAGEMENT CHARTER initiative has attempted to identify core ‘competencies’ of management as a first step to creating a profession of management.

References in periodicals archive ?
This was coming from a new teacher who now lived only 40 minutes from the university, would not need to stay in a hotel, would pay a low first-time conference fee and had even taken my pedagogy course where I repeatedly stressed the importance of attending professional conferences
Space 200, offered 13 or 14 times a year, "provides the educational breadth required by our space professionals and reach many in the community," according to the dean of academics, Air Force Lt.
The goal of this communique is to inform Canadian geoscientists on the latest developments concerning professional mobility.
Without collaborative efforts, expectations from the university perspective may not be understood or supported by school-based professionals.
Data was collected in 2002 from participants of a non-random sample of 1,352 librarians and other information professionals who responded to solicitations (both in print and e-mail) to complete a personality inventory.
The latest amendments to Circular 230, however, if left unchanged, will have the presumably unintended effect of subjecting in-house tax professionals to Circular 230's mechanical and burdensome requirements, even in respect of the most routine communications concerning the most routine matters.
In exchange for physicians accepting themselves as professionals, they received reasonable remuneration, reasonable work/life balance, autonomy, job security, deference and respect.
Contemporary issues (parts 6-8) provides practicing EAP professionals with information that likely will stimulate professional development to better refine service delivery within EAPs.
Even at the local level, providing relevant and up-to-date information is vital for human resources professionals.
There is a lot of opportunity in our business; we just have some difficulty getting that message told or sold to professionals.
The Professional Ethics Executive Committee has made editorial revisions to an interpretation under Rule 101 of the Code of Professional Conduct [AICPA, Professional Standards, ET section 101.
When ACHCA came into being, the American Health Care Association (AHCA--formerly known as the American Nursing Home Association [ANHA]) and the American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging (AAHSA--formerly known as the American Association of Homes for the Aging [AAHA]) represented facilities and the organizations that owned them, but there was no organization representing individual administrators that bridged the divide between the for-profit and not-for-profit sectors of long-term care or focused on the professional development of administrators' leadership and management skills.

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