Nor was there wanting still another precautionary motive
more related to Ahab personally.
This paper argues that currency substitution refers to a country's residents for the transaction motive, precautionary motive
, portfolio motive (i.
The precautionary motive
requires highly liquid savings in developing economies, where insurance for precautionary purposes seems to be less developed (Carrin 2002).
Macro uncertainty, as well as features shaping the precautionary motive
, should be a major factor to consider when discussing the causes, the sustainability and desirability of observed global imbalances," the authors conclude.
It is focused on the precautionary motive
for holding reserves, and has two aims: (i) to explore the role reserves play in preventing and mitigating crises; and (ii) to consider in what ways analysis on reserve adequacy may need to be augmented to account for country-specific factors.
Kaynes  suggests that there are three incentives for reserve cash holdings including transaction motive, precautionary motive
and speculative motive.
This result confirms the strength of the precautionary motive
in the economy well beyond the usual precautionary saving motive.
Secondly, maintaining liquid reserves by the firms may express their precautionary motive
(Diamond et al.
For example, the expansion of China's government into health care and pensions will be a pertinent move to reduce households' precautionary motive
Fourthly, during slowdown a dominance of precautionary motive
may induce consumer to either defer their spending decisions or shift to unbranded alternatives.
These policies included, strengthening domestic consumption requires policies which transfer more corporate savings to households, as well as policies which reduce the precautionary motive
for savings among households.
This model was further revised to include intergenerational transfer motive (saving for children) (Barro, 1978; Kurz, 1984) and precautionary motive
(Saving for emergencies) (carroll, 1997).