Nor was there wanting still another precautionary motive
more related to Ahab personally.
These SMEs need to build up their own cash reserves for transaction and precautionary motives
. Cash flow depicts significant relationship in model 1 and 2, and is negative in both models implying that cash flow is used as substitute of cash in SMEs.
On the other hand, speculative and precautionary motives
are reportedly increasing demand for foreign exchange.
Consequently, this study seeks to understand whether short-term precautionary motives
of households affect their participation in and contribution to saving intermediaries.
In theory, transaction costs and precautionary motives
are the main reasons firms hold cash.
These effects and precautionary motives
may have been amplified by financial under-development, as reflected in constraints on borrowing against future income and low returns on financial assets.
A high fluctuation in cash flows and prevailing uncertainty in the market lead the firms to hold excess cash in their portfolio holdings which explains the precautionary motives
of a firm; however, Jenson (1986) associated agency cost with holding too much cash.
He places sole responsibility for China's soaring saving rate on precautionary motives
. But rising saving rates have been a feature of many developing countries including, for example, India, and they are not always associated with risk aversion.
The first two measures will directly boost consumption, and the third will indirectly help to raise consumption by allaying the widespread precautionary motives
that lead to excessively high household and business savings.
However, households will save much more because of sharp declines in housing wealth, credit constraints and precautionary motives
at a time of rising unemployment: the saving ratio will rise from 1.3 per cent in 2008 to 7.1 per cent in 2009.
Bernanke noted in his speech, ''with consumer credit not readily available and precautionary motives
for saving remaining strong,'' China's domestic consumption was also restrained.