Although this aggregate J-curve delivers an attractive internal rate of return to world commercial exports at the twenty year horizon, the return to the United States exclusively is negative throughout the period of our analysis due to significant (and heretofore unrecognized) positive externality
effects of U.S.
Alternatively, we could discuss a rancher who stops his cattle from roaming as conferring on the farmer the positive externality
of preserved crops.
An STS approach is based on positive externality
theory; firms will increase their production of research on reduced emissions processes to the socially optimal level if they are compensated for the positive externality
that results from their activity.
the total positive externality
to them over time is $9.2 billion, which
189, 190, 195, 197 (2009) (discussing unjust enrichment in positive externality
negative and positive externality
cases, and the difference is fairly
Similarly, introducing a negative externality from crime creates a positive externality
from avoidance effort that offsets the negative external effect on criminals.
Especially when the United States has become more committed to environmental issues such as the reduction of C[O.sub.2] emissions, if China can go along the same direction, it will bring positive externality
to the world.
Development of positive externality
: In the Chilean case, there was some knowledge exchange among the small circle of early pioneers and later the clustering of firms generated benefits of economies of scale.
A bee-keeper whose bees obtain nectar from apple blossoms is the recipient of a one-way positive externality
. However, the bees reciprocate by fertilizing the blossoms for an apple grower.
The R&D costs can be shared by the signatories to an agreement, since they are cooperating, and that yields an additional positive externality
between members of the coalition.